• OpenAccess
    • List of Articles Child

      • Open Access Article

        1 - Research Ethics and Children's Rights
        Shima Tabatabai
        Background and aim: Despite the increasing global attention on the societal need to respect the principles of children's participatory rights in which children are involved, surprisingly, the relationship between children's rights and research ethics is not clear and re More
        Background and aim: Despite the increasing global attention on the societal need to respect the principles of children's participatory rights in which children are involved, surprisingly, the relationship between children's rights and research ethics is not clear and research ethics for children’s rights have been neglected in the social sciences literature. The aim of this study is to determine the relation of the ethical guidelines with children’s right. Method: This analytic study conducted to analyze the ethical research considerations from human rights and child right perspective. Results: Our analysis revealed that although the human right principles referred to in the social research ethical guidelines, the definition of “right” and especially children rights are ignored. Within the social sciences research ethical guidelines, including those related to children, there is often a lack of direct referral to the human rights principles emphasized by the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC). Conclusion: Linking the human rights principles within research ethics guidelines will promote and encourage a rights-based approach to child research. These specific Research ethics guidelines need to be drawn upon the UNCRC. Manuscript profile
      • Open Access Article

        2 - Preventive Strategies towards Victimization of Labor Childeren; Activity-Based Pattern
        Mehdi Khaghani Esfahani
        Labor childeren, whether street and active in closed environments, works with customary practices (such as street peddler), semi-customary (such as garbage) and unconventional (such as prostitution). Several criminological theories, including Social Strain theory, Crimi More
        Labor childeren, whether street and active in closed environments, works with customary practices (such as street peddler), semi-customary (such as garbage) and unconventional (such as prostitution). Several criminological theories, including Social Strain theory, Criminal Ecology theory and Cultural Conflict theory, have provided important cognitive explanations of the phenomenon of child labor, but other criminological theories, such as the theory of Opportunity and the theory of Everyday Activities, can be used to model the type of conventional, semi-conventional and unconventional activities of children used the offenders who often fall victim to them. Inconsistencies in the habitat, inaccuracies in the perilous environment, inability/ignorance of counseling institutions in crisis intervention, perceptual and behavioral disorders and lack of citizenship rehabilitation skills provide the opportunity to commit certain crimes against child labor in turbulent metropolitan furniture. Awareness of what kind of activities by types of child labor, the context of victimization in which crimes increases, enables intelligent child labor victimization strategies to be given to custodial policemen in the field of child protection. Adopting a prevention strategy without a specific knowledge about the status of environmental conditions harmful to children, the sustained failure of these strategies persists. This article, after applying the criminological theories on the factors and the process of child victimization, explains the meaningful relationship between the crimes committed against these children by their type of work (conventional, semi-conventional and unconventional) and strategies for increasing the crime of committing crimes against these children and enhancing immunity. Manuscript profile
      • Open Access Article

        3 - Comparative Study of Children and Adolescents’ Protection Law in Iran and Egypt
        Maryam Shajirat
        This study was conducted by reviewing the laws and regulations of Iran and Egypt concerning children and adolescents, and also international standards such as the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Beijing Rules as well to compare and analyze issues including More
        This study was conducted by reviewing the laws and regulations of Iran and Egypt concerning children and adolescents, and also international standards such as the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Beijing Rules as well to compare and analyze issues including children and adolescents protection rules in Iran and Egypt, the minimum and maximum age of criminal responsibility, type and extent of criminal responsibility in different age groups in both Iran and Egypt. Then, the extent of compliance of two countries rules with international rules was assessed. Our results revealed that Iran has not complied with the principles of legislation in drafting the protection laws for children and adolescents. The adoption of numerous and dispersed laws in the pre and post revolution has undermined the principle of accessibility of the law, then these circumstances make it difficult to protect children and adolescents with It is a problem and finally prevent the realization of access to justice. In Egypt, the minimum and maximum age for criminal responsibility is 12 and 18 years, respectively, also the minimum age of civilian custody is 21 years, while in Iran’s law, there is not the same approach regarding minimum and maximum age of criminal responsibility due to punishments of crimes are classified into discretionary, retaliate. This result has controversy with international regulations. Manuscript profile
      • Open Access Article

        4 - Minimum Intervention Model in Response to Children Unlawful Behaviors in court Complex of Shahid Fahmideh, Tehran, Iran (2016-2017)
        Hossein Gholami
        Models of response to children unlawful behaviors are grouped into five categories, penal justice, welfare, restorative, minimum intervention, and risk management. Each of these models attempts to correct delinquent children in a different way and with varying degrees o More
        Models of response to children unlawful behaviors are grouped into five categories, penal justice, welfare, restorative, minimum intervention, and risk management. Each of these models attempts to correct delinquent children in a different way and with varying degrees of impact, and non-punishment or mild punishment may lead to further correction of delinquent children in certain offenses. This study aimed to compare the extent and manner of application of the Minimum Intervention Model with other models in Shahid Fahmideh Judicial Complex of Tehran. It was performed through the explanatory content analysis method and the statistical population consisted of 100 cases selected from two branches of this complex using the purposive non-probability sampling method. After the data were collected, they were analyzed in SPSS, and the percentages of frequency were as follows: 20% of the cases were not responded due to order for suspension of prosecution and 76% of the cases had at least one of the intervention indicators in addition to other response models. Findings indicated that the judges of this complex used the Minimum Intervention Model more than other models. Although the use of this model in the area of criminal justice for children and adolescents is a positive action, it must be adjusted in some offenses. Manuscript profile
      • Open Access Article

        5 - Legal Approaches to Protecting Children against Violence In Educational Environments
        Mohamad Mahdi Meghdadi
        Education as a fundamental right of children's human rights represents the development of human societies and the growth and excellence of children in today's societies. Undoubtedly educational environments in order to realize such a right should have a safe and desirab More
        Education as a fundamental right of children's human rights represents the development of human societies and the growth and excellence of children in today's societies. Undoubtedly educational environments in order to realize such a right should have a safe and desirable space to increase the mental health of children in learning the knowledge and realization of their education and upbringing. Hence, the phenomenon of violence in such environments has become increasingly evolving in spite of educational and corrective approaches to child behavior and discipline in the prevailing educational environment. in this study, by studying and explaining violence against children in educational settings based on the documents of the International Human Rights Law, as well as the Iranian legal system's standards regarding the right of children and their support, they are working to prevent and prevent the occurrence of such a phenomenon. Provided in educational environments. Manuscript profile
      • Open Access Article

        6 - Child Great Interests in Iran's Judiciary and Convention on the Rights of the Child
        Mohammad Roshan Hossein Hamdi
        The interest of the child means managing his affairs in such a way as to ensure the accuracy of his physical development and his moral and intellectual civility. The interest of the child arises of the particular physical and psychological state of the child because the More
        The interest of the child means managing his affairs in such a way as to ensure the accuracy of his physical development and his moral and intellectual civility. The interest of the child arises of the particular physical and psychological state of the child because the child is not an evolved person but is on the path to becoming an adult and wise person. Therefore, the interest of the child is different from the interest of the adult man. For this reason, in conflict between preserving the child's psyche and preserving his property priority is by preserving his soul and intellect. Iran law and the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child have accepted this criterion. Because of the joinder of Iran to the Convention on the Rights of the Child, the Convention, based on Article 9 of the Civil Code, is governed by the domestic law of Iran, and it can be inferred from the interpretation of the existing laws and the completion of the reticence of the law, such as the time when the child withdraws from custody, to the present Convention, In this direction, it has been cited in some of the rulings issued to this Convention as one of the directions of the ruling. Manuscript profile
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        7 - Sociological Analysis of Child Rights in Iran: The Scientific and Executive Status of Committee on the Rights of the Child in Markazi Province
        Maryam Sha’ban
        The present study sought to study the scientific structures and the implementation of child rights in Markazi province, therefore, the level of analysis is at the macro and structural levels, in such a way that all programs, actions and structures in relation to salarie More
        The present study sought to study the scientific structures and the implementation of child rights in Markazi province, therefore, the level of analysis is at the macro and structural levels, in such a way that all programs, actions and structures in relation to salaries The child was identified in Markazi province and then analyzed using the library-based document analysis method. The purpose of the research was to identify the strengths and weaknesses of scientific and executive in relation to child rights in Markazi province and ultimately to provide a solution for policymakers to improve the status quo. The lack of a definite definition of the "child" and "childhood" in Iran and the scattered petty culture in the provinces, such as the Markazi province, and the gap between the definitions of various institutions, including the institution of religion, law and law, in addition to the non-conformity of each with Popular culture, the lack of power for prescribing and policy for the children's rights committees, such as the central governorate, the system of denial of child support programs and the assignment of children's rights in the province to the Chambers of Ladies and Family Governorates have led to the second priority of children's rights programs in provinces such as central province. As a result, all of these cases have led to barriers to improving the status of children's rights in Iran at the macro level and in the central province at a lower level. Manuscript profile
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        8 - Social Protection of Street and Labor Children
        Nasim Khodakhah
        Throughout history the child has been exposed to various abuses due to certain physical and mental characteristics. The specific situation of street children has caused them to be exposed to various types of abuse and harm in the community in the family environment, and More
        Throughout history the child has been exposed to various abuses due to certain physical and mental characteristics. The specific situation of street children has caused them to be exposed to various types of abuse and harm in the community in the family environment, and they need a lot of support, including legal protection. The phenomenon of street children and work is one of the problems facing most of the major cities in the contemporary world. Children are forced to work due to their particular circumstances, and this has led to positive and negative changes in their self-reflection of their peers. The issue of addressing poverty and children and solving street children's problems is a matter that will only be solved with the cooperation of international governments, international governmental organizations and international NGOs, such as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch, and will work closely with the rights of children's rights activists. The social status of these children is very unfavorable and street children are more likely to be subjected to sexual assaults and illnesses such as AIDS, sexual violence and forced pregnancy if they are girls. Manuscript profile
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        9 - Critical Analysis and Survey Politics and Presented Solutions to Protection from Working and Street Children
        Hosein Khobbakht Bentolhoda Niknami
        Problem of working children and street children is one of the most issues related to children in developing and developed societies, there are between 100 up 150 million street children in the world. Cannot presented estimated right from number of this children, because More
        Problem of working children and street children is one of the most issues related to children in developing and developed societies, there are between 100 up 150 million street children in the world. Cannot presented estimated right from number of this children, because there is no definition accurate from this issue and states don’t express breadth of this the phenomenon in yourself country clearly, different and damaging politics by authorities and social factors and family .unfortunately it has provoked to this problem such as unmatched the rules in country and no conformity of existence ruled and a lack of sanctions in encounter of offenders and lack of awareness families from laws of children that indicates this is necessity to confront to the phenomenon more than ever the present article is trying to express solutions direction improvement of children situations after cash politics and survey problems of this children. Manuscript profile
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        10 - Comparative Study of Asylum Seeker Children’s Right to Health in Common European Asylum System and Convention on the Rights of the Child
        Reza Mousazadeh AhmadReza Azarpendar
        One of the Asylum seekers children’s essential rights is the right to health, which is interpreted as the highest physical and mental standards. This right may include comprehensive medical and healthcare services, proper food and housing, proper health educations and a More
        One of the Asylum seekers children’s essential rights is the right to health, which is interpreted as the highest physical and mental standards. This right may include comprehensive medical and healthcare services, proper food and housing, proper health educations and also healthy environment. Accordingly, the governments are required in convention on the rights of child to spare their utmost effort to realize this right. At the time being, considering the large number of asylum seekers heading from the West Asian countries towards Europe, the European countries’ commitment to ensuring the asylum seekers children’s right to health is critically important. By comparing the Convention on the Rights of the Child and its General Comments with Common European Asylum System, Apparently, despite of the fact that the European Union has been successful in legislating for the asylum seekers children, in some cases, the fulfillment of children’s rights is subordinated to the domestic conditions of members of the EU, that it’s contrary to their obligations. Manuscript profile
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        11 - Prohibition of Child Pornography in the Context of International and Domestic Documents
        Mohammad Hossein Jafari Elaheh Parsa
        One of the major abuses against the child's legal rights in the community is pornography that violates human dignity, as mentioned in international documents and today it has become a growing global threat. The direct production or direct participation of children in se More
        One of the major abuses against the child's legal rights in the community is pornography that violates human dignity, as mentioned in international documents and today it has become a growing global threat. The direct production or direct participation of children in sexual images is pornography, which is conducted through a variety of media including magazines, cartoons, paintings and animations. Given the irreparable consequences of this damage to children, countries and governments must take appropriate legal action so that this can be done to some degree from the destructive effects of this vulnerable group. Child pornography has been banned and sanctioned in most countries of the world and in international documents and treaties that have been concluded between countries. In domestic law, although it has not explicitly referred to pornography, but it has been declared illegal by numerous instances in several laws, and it has been punished for the offender, but it should be noted that the drafting of the law in this The field is not the only solution to eliminate this crime and to eliminate its effects, but the government must inform the people and families and children. Manuscript profile
      • Open Access Article

        12 - Research Ethics and Children's Rights
        Shima Tabatabai
        Background and aim: Despite the increasing global attention on the societal need to respect the principles of children's participatory rights in which children are involved, surprisingly, the relationship between children's rights and research ethics is not clear and re More
        Background and aim: Despite the increasing global attention on the societal need to respect the principles of children's participatory rights in which children are involved, surprisingly, the relationship between children's rights and research ethics is not clear and research ethics for children’s rights have been neglected in the social sciences literature. The aim of this study is to determine the relation of the ethical guidelines with children’s right. Method: This analytic study conducted to analyze the ethical research considerations from human rights and child right perspective. Results: Our analysis revealed that although the human right principles referred to in the social research ethical guidelines, the definition of “right” and especially children rights are ignored. Within the social sciences research ethical guidelines, including those related to children, there is often a lack of direct referral to the human rights principles emphasized by the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC). Conclusion: Linking the human rights principles within research ethics guidelines will promote and encourage a rights-based approach to child research. These specific Research ethics guidelines need to be drawn upon the UNCRC. Manuscript profile
      • Open Access Article

        13 - Preventive Strategies towards Victimization of Labor Childeren; Activity-Based Pattern
        Mehdi Khaghani Esfahani Ghasem Mohamadi
        Labor childeren, whether street and active in closed environments, works with customary practices (such as street peddler), semi-customary (such as garbage) and unconventional (such as prostitution). Several criminological theories, including Social Strain theory, Crimi More
        Labor childeren, whether street and active in closed environments, works with customary practices (such as street peddler), semi-customary (such as garbage) and unconventional (such as prostitution). Several criminological theories, including Social Strain theory, Criminal Ecology theory and Cultural Conflict theory, have provided important cognitive explanations of the phenomenon of child labor, but other criminological theories, such as the theory of Opportunity and the theory of Everyday Activities, can be used to model the type of conventional, semi-conventional and unconventional activities of children used the offenders who often fall victim to them. Inconsistencies in the habitat, inaccuracies in the perilous environment, inability/ignorance of counseling institutions in crisis intervention, perceptual and behavioral disorders and lack of citizenship rehabilitation skills provide the opportunity to commit certain crimes against child labor in turbulent metropolitan furniture. Awareness of what kind of activities by types of child labor, the context of victimization in which crimes increases, enables intelligent child labor victimization strategies to be given to custodial policemen in the field of child protection. Adopting a prevention strategy without a specific knowledge about the status of environmental conditions harmful to children, the sustained failure of these strategies persists. This article, after applying the criminological theories on the factors and the process of child victimization, explains the meaningful relationship between the crimes committed against these children by their type of work (conventional, semi-conventional and unconventional) and strategies for increasing the crime of committing crimes against these children and enhancing immunity. Manuscript profile
      • Open Access Article

        14 - Comparative Study of Children and Adolescents’ Protection Law in Iran and Egypt
        Amin Jafari Maryam Shajirat
        This study was conducted by reviewing the laws and regulations of Iran and Egypt concerning children and adolescents, and also international standards such as the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Beijing Rules as well to compare and analyze issues including More
        This study was conducted by reviewing the laws and regulations of Iran and Egypt concerning children and adolescents, and also international standards such as the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Beijing Rules as well to compare and analyze issues including children and adolescents protection rules in Iran and Egypt, the minimum and maximum age of criminal responsibility, type and extent of criminal responsibility in different age groups in both Iran and Egypt. Then, the extent of compliance of two countries rules with international rules was assessed. Our results revealed that Iran has not complied with the principles of legislation in drafting the protection laws for children and adolescents. The adoption of numerous and dispersed laws in the pre and post revolution has undermined the principle of accessibility of the law, then these circumstances make it difficult to protect children and adolescents with It is a problem and finally prevent the realization of access to justice. In Egypt, the minimum and maximum age for criminal responsibility is 12 and 18 years, respectively, also the minimum age of civilian custody is 21 years, while in Iran’s law, there is not the same approach regarding minimum and maximum age of criminal responsibility due to punishments of crimes are classified into discretionary, retaliate. This result has controversy with international regulations. Manuscript profile
      • Open Access Article

        15 - Minimum Intervention Model in Response to Children Unlawful Behaviors in court Complex of Shahid Fahmideh, Tehran, Iran (2016-2017)
        Hossein Gholami Hassan Ali Moazenzadegan Nafiseh Zaeri
        Models of response to children unlawful behaviors are grouped into five categories, penal justice, welfare, restorative, minimum intervention, and risk management. Each of these models attempts to correct delinquent children in a different way and with varying degrees o More
        Models of response to children unlawful behaviors are grouped into five categories, penal justice, welfare, restorative, minimum intervention, and risk management. Each of these models attempts to correct delinquent children in a different way and with varying degrees of impact, and non-punishment or mild punishment may lead to further correction of delinquent children in certain offenses. This study aimed to compare the extent and manner of application of the Minimum Intervention Model with other models in Shahid Fahmideh Judicial Complex of Tehran. It was performed through the explanatory content analysis method and the statistical population consisted of 100 cases selected from two branches of this complex using the purposive non-probability sampling method. After the data were collected, they were analyzed in SPSS, and the percentages of frequency were as follows: 20% of the cases were not responded due to order for suspension of prosecution and 76% of the cases had at least one of the intervention indicators in addition to other response models. Findings indicated that the judges of this complex used the Minimum Intervention Model more than other models. Although the use of this model in the area of criminal justice for children and adolescents is a positive action, it must be adjusted in some offenses. Manuscript profile
      • Open Access Article

        16 - Legal Approaches to Protecting Children against Violence In Educational Environments
        Mohamad Mahdi Meghdadi Mohamad Mahdi Badami
        Education as a fundamental right of children's human rights represents the development of human societies and the growth and excellence of children in today's societies. Undoubtedly educational environments in order to realize such a right should have a safe and desirab More
        Education as a fundamental right of children's human rights represents the development of human societies and the growth and excellence of children in today's societies. Undoubtedly educational environments in order to realize such a right should have a safe and desirable space to increase the mental health of children in learning the knowledge and realization of their education and upbringing. Hence, the phenomenon of violence in such environments has become increasingly evolving in spite of educational and corrective approaches to child behavior and discipline in the prevailing educational environment. in this study, by studying and explaining violence against children in educational settings based on the documents of the International Human Rights Law, as well as the Iranian legal system's standards regarding the right of children and their support, they are working to prevent and prevent the occurrence of such a phenomenon. Provided in educational environments. Manuscript profile
      • Open Access Article

        17 - Dimensions of Legal Liability in Malapropos Cesarean in the Light of the Fundamental Rights of the Fetus
        Mahmoud Abbasi Meysam Kalhornia Golkar
        Background and aim: Malapropos Cesarean is an intervention in the delivery process aimed at giving birth to a favorite date without medical necessities. This behavioral anomaly has challenged society more than ever in recent years and so is increasing in a way that, if More
        Background and aim: Malapropos Cesarean is an intervention in the delivery process aimed at giving birth to a favorite date without medical necessities. This behavioral anomaly has challenged society more than ever in recent years and so is increasing in a way that, if left unaddressed, will become a moral norm and difficult to deal with legally. Method: This study conducted to a descriptive - analytic study that examines the basics and dimensions of legal liability arising from Malapropos Cesarean. Results: Malapropos Cesarean Because of the disruption to the child's natural birth process and putting him at risk can be regarded as a violation of the basic and fundamental rights of the child including the right to life and the right to health and in particular fetal right to spend a full period in the womb. Accordingly, jurisprudential, ethical and legal considerations of this social phenomenon indicate the possibility of professional, civil and criminal liability for physicians. In addition, parents should be involved in the practice of physicians’ violation. Conclusion: Due to the lack of victim power for the action and the consent of the parents and the physician to intervention in the delivery process, the legal prosecution of Malapropos Cesarean faces obstacles. Accordingly, it is necessary, within the framework of the health law system, emphasizing on the public aspect of Malapropos Cesarean, while applying current laws, as well as regulatory, along with dealing with offenders, would be considered necessary measures to avoid health centers from performing this surgery. Manuscript profile
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        18 - Conflict of Execution of Hodoud and Retribution against Children and Adolescents with the Right to Life
        Atefeh Abbasi Fatemeh Salehi Nejad
        Despite widespread legal reforms in the Islamic Penal Code and the code of penal procedure approved in 1392, in the scope of children and adolescents, there are still gaps and bugs in the Criminal liability of the child, the kind of executable punishment against them an More
        Despite widespread legal reforms in the Islamic Penal Code and the code of penal procedure approved in 1392, in the scope of children and adolescents, there are still gaps and bugs in the Criminal liability of the child, the kind of executable punishment against them and procedure of crimes of children. This article, in a library method and after accurate study of existing jurisprudence and legal sources, concluded that, although existing laws regulate the relative acceptance of the age of criminal liability of children and adolescents in the field of crimes of inferiority and the minimum use of punishment and increase in legislating educative acts ,but the age of criminal liability Especially regarding the execution of hodoud and retribution is considered to face the challenge of aberration with social requirements and can be increased by appropriate separation between age of religious responsibility and criminal liability, based on available jurisprudential and scientific sources, which is a problem related to the execution of retributive punishments and it will raise the limit for children too. Manuscript profile
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        19 - An Analytical Study of Important Cultural Factors Deterring Child Sexual Abuse Disclosure
        Arian Petoft
        Nowadays, one of the most known types of violence against children around the world is child sexual abuse, which is typically a reflection of the causes of social problem. The customs and traditions of society sometimes make the people to conceal sexual violence against More
        Nowadays, one of the most known types of violence against children around the world is child sexual abuse, which is typically a reflection of the causes of social problem. The customs and traditions of society sometimes make the people to conceal sexual violence against children. Many cases of sexual abuse have not been reported due to concealment and fear of being exposed, and its deleterious effects on children remain concealed. As one of the most dangerous forms of violence against children is their sexual abuse, it is important to examine cultural normative factors and can help us in pathology and in providing appropriate solutions. Therefore, the present article seeks to answer the key question of what cultural norms can make us to conceal child sexual abuse cases and consequently facilitate and increase sexual violence against children and adolescents. Understanding the values generally held by people of a particular culture allows us to eliminate the social barriers to disclosing child sexual abuse. Overall, this article found that the important cultural factors are: family honor and dignity, chastity, gender discrimination, high costs of disclosure, traditional and racial difference, deviant religious beliefs and non-effective adherence to reasonable cultural norms. Manuscript profile
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        20 - Reflection on the Relationship between Education and Child Rights
        Amene Aali
        The wide range of legal implications of the International Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) have made it closely linked to various child-related social institutions and activities. One of the most important institutions or social activities that most children More
        The wide range of legal implications of the International Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) have made it closely linked to various child-related social institutions and activities. One of the most important institutions or social activities that most children are exposed to on a daily basis is education, which is important in examining its relationship to children's rights. Accordingly, this paper presents an interpretative model of the multiple relationship between the education system and CRC with an overview of theoretical texts and research reports in the literature on child rights and implications for evaluating school performance from the child rights perspective. According to the results of this study, there is a three-way relationship between education and children's rights: education is a child's right; school is a tool for observing children's rights; and education is a subject of children's rights monitoring. The third aspect of this relationship emphasizes the need to evaluate school performance from a child rights perspective. Among the 41 articles on CRC, the right to participate, non-discrimination, defense and litigation, protection of violence, the best interests, privacy, freedom of expression, and security are fundamental rights that can be used as criteria for assessing The school's performance is in observance of children's rights and in compliance with CRC. Manuscript profile
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        21 - Protection of Right to Life of the Child in Viewpoint of Islam and International Instruments with a Look at the Children of Yemen
        Mahdi Rahmani Fatemeh Piri Amirhajiloo
        The right to life is the most important right of any human being, especially the child. This right is the cornerstone of all human rights and any violation of it is a gross and grave violation of fundamental human rights. According to the teachings of Islam and many Int More
        The right to life is the most important right of any human being, especially the child. This right is the cornerstone of all human rights and any violation of it is a gross and grave violation of fundamental human rights. According to the teachings of Islam and many International Instruments, the child, as a human being, has the right to a decent living and life under any circumstances. Today, with armed clashes waged by global arrogance to achieve their economic and political interests in some countries, including Yemen, the inherent rights of children, including the right to life, the right to health, the right to education, have been clearly threatened and violated and every year thousands of Yemeni children die as a result of these clashes. Theis study is a descriptive-analytical and comparative study that examine the fundamentals of the right to life of child in Islam and international Instruments and the effects of armed conflict on child rights. In addition, the right to life of children in Yemen has been discussed and stated that it is essential for all people, national and international institutions and governments to provide mechanisms to secure this right and prevent violence against children in armed conflict. In addition, it is imperative that those who endanger the life of children in armed conflict be charged with war crimes, prosecution, trial and punishment. Manuscript profile
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        22 - Evaluation of the Right to Oral Health of a Child and its Realization on the International Stage
        Aghil Mohammadi Aghil Mohammadi Abdosaheb Niknam
        Health is one of the most important human rights. The right to oral health is one aspect of this right and an integral part of public health pertains to the disease-free status and chronic pain in the mouth, face and throat. Among the human groups, children are the most More
        Health is one of the most important human rights. The right to oral health is one aspect of this right and an integral part of public health pertains to the disease-free status and chronic pain in the mouth, face and throat. Among the human groups, children are the most vulnerable to various health threats, and therefore international instruments, in particular the Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989), emphasize the right to children's health. Oral diseases are among the factors that seriously affect this right. These diseases not only cause pain, but also affect the eating, speaking and quality of life, inner and social self-esteem of the child. Based on a descriptive-analytical approach and in the light of an overview of the international law approach to the right to health and the right to oral health and the explanation of children's rights in this field, the present paper addresses the question of the right to oral health and what is the position of child in oral health? This paper concludes that, despite the particular importance of children's oral health and the achievement of important results in this area, Oral diseases continue to be widespread among children and the right to do so is faced with many obstacles and limitations. In addition to international institutions, it is essential that states, along with global health programs for all, are targeted and organized, in particular to prevent these diseases and improve access to primary health care. Access to health information around the world, the use of new technologies, regular and annual reports by states on children's oral health can help promote the right to children's oral health. Manuscript profile
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        23 - A Survey of Child Marriage in the Country with Emphasis on East Azarbaijan Province
        Kamal Koohi
        Child marriage is one of the major challenges in the family institution and in society. Child marriage has been widespread throughout the history of societies depend on time and place. But its increase in society, especially for reasons such as poverty and the widesprea More
        Child marriage is one of the major challenges in the family institution and in society. Child marriage has been widespread throughout the history of societies depend on time and place. But its increase in society, especially for reasons such as poverty and the widespread age difference is considered a threat to the institution of the family and society. In this article, child marriages across the country are reviewed based on valid statistical yearbooks. The results of statistical analysis show that the trend of child marriage has been increasing since 2011 until 2019 and Khorasan-e-Razavi, East Azarbaijan, Sistan and Baluchestan and Khuzestan provinces are among the provinces with the highest rates of child marriage. Yazd and Semnan provinces have the least statistics. East Azarbaijan province ranks second in early marriage and child marriage as well as in divorce in the age group of 10 to 14 years. Within the provinces, child marriage is more common in the cities of Malekan, Bostanabad, Sarab and Charoimagh and the highest divorce rate was observed in early marriages in Varzaghan, Malekan, Sarab, Khodafarin, Kaleibar and Hashtrood. Therefore, for preventing, adjustment and controlling of unintended and unwanted child marriage in the community and proper management of families with child marriage, it seems that education and promotion of life skills and communication of child marriage families, education and awareness of different groups of people about child marriage outcomes, Social, Legal and Economic Prevention of child marriage based on economic poverty, creation of a database and observation of issues and problems of child marriage, employing religious leaders and community Imams in changing the stereotypes , Creating a legal obligation to deliver courses Life and marital harassment, banning abnormal age at marriage and marrying under 14, and forming medical, psychological, social, and cultural committees to guide families on the path to successful marriage are the ways in which the abnormal child-marriage rate can be decreased, Controlled and modified. Manuscript profile
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        24 - Instagram Child Labor Concept: A Study on Iranian Children on Cyber Space
        Atefeh Aghaei Zahra Rezania
        Instagram is considered a new medium context where users involving parents and children are able to actively act. Instagram Child Labor is a new phenomenon on cyberspace where children are exploited by their parents to be of use by expressing various aspects of their bi More
        Instagram is considered a new medium context where users involving parents and children are able to actively act. Instagram Child Labor is a new phenomenon on cyberspace where children are exploited by their parents to be of use by expressing various aspects of their biological life. With this in mind, media power is capable of creating a concept of child as well as behaving to the detriment of children in favor of businesses and family wealth. This study aims at identifying the meaning of "Instagram Child Labor" and what it collocates with. To this purpose, eight influencer pages working on children scope were picked out to be analyzed qualitatively utilizing MAX QDA. The results indicate that children’s body and communications equal to "display means", "mothers’ identity and brand maker", "a means to advertise" and moreover, children’s personal information is akin to "a way to satisfy children’s curiosity" that with the prior one create the concept of Instagram Child Labor so that families become more lucrative by helping advertising firms make more followers. Manuscript profile
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        25 - The Necessity of Recognition and Support of Children Right to Happiness in Domestic and International Legal System
        Reza Fanazad Ramin Poursaeid
        The increased human beings experiences and improvements have direct effect on social and legal developments. As a sample, the classic rights such as the right to life and the right to body immunity are counted as obvious and normal rights. The less-known rights have bee More
        The increased human beings experiences and improvements have direct effect on social and legal developments. As a sample, the classic rights such as the right to life and the right to body immunity are counted as obvious and normal rights. The less-known rights have been appeared in both internal and international law. The right to happiness with emphasis on child happiness is one of these new phenomenons. This right obtains its situation as a new generation of developing factors by some countries. The authors search and explain by library-based studying method on the concept of happiness in philosophy, theosophy, morality, literature and religious jurisprudence. Then, (facts) and (norms) about joining of children happiness and legal system are discovered. The results show us non-governmental organizations and governmental ones such as teaching and cultivation ministry or Institute for the intellectual development of children and young adults in spite of their advantageous services are far from their real missions. It may because of no priority of happiness for politicians, absence of consistency between policy and relative administrators, some cultural and economic challenges, etc. This article has submitted some suggestion to solve the obstacles in accordance with available circumstances. Manuscript profile
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        26 - Children's Rights to Education in International Human Rights Documents
        Marzieh Hojaji Najaf Abadi Massimo Papa
        Children's rights, as part of the human rights debate, focus on protecting and supporting children and achieving their basic rights. Human rights are the inherent rights of all human beings. Children also have the same rights without discrimination. The main purpose of More
        Children's rights, as part of the human rights debate, focus on protecting and supporting children and achieving their basic rights. Human rights are the inherent rights of all human beings. Children also have the same rights without discrimination. The main purpose of this research is to investigate the right to education of children and to study it in international documents. An analytical approach has been used to achieve this goal. The main focus of this analysis is the Convention on the Rights of the Child as the most important document in the field of child rights, related articles on the Child’s education right, other international human rights instruments, the position of education in the international human rights system, the Declaration of Human Rights and Islamic Declaration of Human Rights. Therefore, recognizing the right to education for children in the human rights system will require the support and commitment of governments to provide children with access to appropriate educational facilities. The Declaration of the Rights of the Child incorporates the broad concept of the child as the right holder. The four basic principles of the Convention on the Rights of the Child can be: 1. The principle of non-discrimination and the guarantee of the rights of the Convention for all children without any discrimination; 2. The priority of the interests of the child in any law and regulations affecting the child; 3. The right to life, survival and development of children and adolescents; 4. The right to have children's views and opinions at all stages of their decision-making. In this international instrument, Articles 28 and 29 recognize the right to education in children and this right has been enshrined in equal opportunities. Another international human rights instrument, especially in the field of children and the right to education of children, is the Human Rights Declaration of 1948. Article 26 recognizes the right to education of children and everyone has the right to equal access to education and access. It also sees education as guiding the human personality with good understanding, forgiveness and respect for different beliefs. This analysis, on the one hand, represents the belief in the inherent dignity of children and the "human personality" without any discrimination on the basis of issues of gender, color, opinion, ethnicity and religion, and on the other hand, emphasizes the principle is to protect children and to recognize their fundamental rights. The right to education as a human rights principle in the field of children, including the right to access to education, the right to quality and standard education, respect for the human dignity and dignity of the child, non-discrimination education at all stages of childhood, access to educational opportunities and equality of opportunity in education. Manuscript profile
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        27 - Explaining Consent and Assent in the Treatment of Children from the Perspective of Jurisprudence, Law and Medical Ethics
        Kourosh Delpasand Zahra Firouzabadi Ahmad Mashkoori Afsaneh Ghanbari Mohamad Nourian
        Background and aim: Health professionals have the ethical and legal duty to achieve the highest level of protection for the safety and health of children in medical interventions. Children have different mental and physical capacities depending on age, type of illness a More
        Background and aim: Health professionals have the ethical and legal duty to achieve the highest level of protection for the safety and health of children in medical interventions. Children have different mental and physical capacities depending on age, type of illness and disability. But the important point is to examine the age of the child from the perspective of jurisprudence, law and ethics. Therefore, the present article examines how the framework of Iranian law on obtaining consent from children in a variety of non-surgical and surgical interventions and determining the legal criteria for consent of the child and his or her legal guardians. Method: This research is based on descriptive-analytical method and based on valid library documents and resources. Results: When the parent of the child cares for his or her interests, he or she is the best decision-maker in the therapeutic process. When parents are concerned about the child's best interests, they are the best decision maker in the therapeutic process. However, in cases where the forced parent has a high risk behavior for the child and does not allow the child to take the necessary medical treatment, health professionals must apply for a permit through the Prosecutor's Office to obtain treatment. Conclusion: Consent and agreement in children is a continuous process and in therapeutic situations depends on the child's ability and understanding of the situation. In many therapies, involving children in decision-making helps them to participate in the treatment process. It is recommended to set consent rules for the treatment of children in a variety of non-invasive and non-surgical interventions and invasive and surgical interventions. Manuscript profile
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        28 - Sociological Analysis of Children's Civil Society in Iran
        Taghi Azad Armaki Maryam Sha’ban
        This study seeks to study and analyze the civil society related to children in Iran. In this regard, with the qualitative approach and the method of monography and content analysis, she has analyzed two examples of active children's domain associations in Iran. The resu More
        This study seeks to study and analyze the civil society related to children in Iran. In this regard, with the qualitative approach and the method of monography and content analysis, she has analyzed two examples of active children's domain associations in Iran. The results show that the "pathological approach" to child-related civil society in Iran casts a shadow, indicating the dominance of the "American-English approach" to child-related civil society in Iran. And, unlike the title of licenses, associations are directly and indirectly affiliated with government agencies and seek to attract positive reviews from organizations for the three purposes of "obtaining financial support", "gaining legitimacy" and "reputation". They are government. Therefore, these associations, in effect, seek "economic profitability"; therefore, the domination of "rationality" and "market logic" over the inherent rationality that permeates civil society in Iran, especially in related fields. They are targeted with children; and children are purposely targeted as ignorant audiences and without the "critical intellect". In addition, the civil society in Iran has neglected its primary mission to seek the rights and improve the status of children affected and at risk of being harmed, forgotten, or in the forefront of the community's economic interests. Therefore, the civil society associated with children in Iran is malformed and "sick", which requires urgent specialized resuscitation and review. Manuscript profile
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        29 - Responsibility of Governments and Mechanisms for Protecting Children's Rights in Cyberspace
        Mohammad Reza Hosseini
        The increasing development of cyberspace and the use of ICTs have had an effective role in the production, dissemination and transmission of information and have provided the community with access to online content. As such, cyberspace is an enabling tool to promote fun More
        The increasing development of cyberspace and the use of ICTs have had an effective role in the production, dissemination and transmission of information and have provided the community with access to online content. As such, cyberspace is an enabling tool to promote fundamental freedoms such as freedom of speech, freedom of access to information and an effective means of promoting human rights, however, at the same time it can provide the conditions for breach, violation or restriction of individual's rights. Amongst them, children's rights, as the most vulnerable segment of society, are often abused and invaded. In the contemporary world, children spend a great deal of time on educational, leisure and entertainment activities in cyberspace and online. In this space with the expanse of its domain, anonymity, the high speed, the lack of borders, the lack of mechanisms of government oversight, would have an intensive impact on the domain of users' cognition and perception and pose special risks to individuals, especially children and adolescents. Therefore, the rights of the child must be protected by governments, non-governmental organizations, civil institutions and other child affairs authorities. The main question of this study is what are the positive and negative obligations of governments to protect children in cyberspace under international customary law and internationally accredited documents? What technical, legal and structural mechanisms are available to protect children against online' damages? What has been the practice of governments and international institutions and civil society in protecting children's rights on the one hand and maintaining a free flow of information and freedom of expression on the other? To answer these questions, the researcher uses a descriptive method to provide a coherent legal framework for protecting children in cyberspace. Manuscript profile
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        30 - Principles Governing the Child's Right to Health in the International Human Rights System
        Zahra Ebrahimi Zahra Moshrefjavadi
        Children as the recipients of the right to health and the future of any society need the support of the government, their parents and legal guardians while entering adulthood. The Convention on the Rights of the Child has referred to the issue of child health in several More
        Children as the recipients of the right to health and the future of any society need the support of the government, their parents and legal guardians while entering adulthood. The Convention on the Rights of the Child has referred to the issue of child health in several articles and the Committee on the Rights of the Child has called on governments to consider childhood conditions and children's evolving capacities when fulfilling their obligations toward them. Thus, the Convention on the Rights of the Child has four core principles that underpin all children's rights: the right to life and survival, non-discrimination, the right to be heard and consideration of child’s best interests such as all human rights. Since children's right to health is a general right and encounters various challenges from the time of birth and even before that to adolescence, some principles are added to the basic principles in order to supplement the content of their right to health and complete them. The right to education, protection from abuse and misbehavior and prohibition from harmful practices and threats of the digital world are specific principles governing the definition of children's right to health. Governments need to consider this right of children in all areas and recognize children as individuals possessing rights. Manuscript profile
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        31 - Protecting Children against Inappropriate and Harmful Computer Games
        Mohammas Javad Arabian Seyedeh Parisa Mirabi Ali Zand
        The use of computer games among children is rapidly expanding and it has become an integral part of children's daily lives. These games, with their innovative potential, can provide motivation for therapy, enhance practical skills and facilitate teaching and learning co More
        The use of computer games among children is rapidly expanding and it has become an integral part of children's daily lives. These games, with their innovative potential, can provide motivation for therapy, enhance practical skills and facilitate teaching and learning concepts. In addition to the positive aspects, playing these games has negative effects and on the other hand, kids drowning in computer games will lead to earn profits and benefits by the companies that make these games. This study, with descriptive-analytical method using domestic laws and regulations and internationals treaties and other library resources; was carried out to examine the protection of the children's rights from harmful computer games by applying sociological theories; domestic law and international documents and has used descriptive, analytical method aimed to ensure the right to play, enjoy and entertain. The present study was conducted aimed to examine the benefits and disadvantages of computer games to express legal requirements and protections and protect users from harmful effects of these games. Manuscript profile
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        32 - Data Credibility and Electronic Records in The Face of Rights of the Child in Cyber Space
        Mostafa Mandegar Reza Zareie Masoud Reza Ranjbar Sahraei Merhzad Razmi
        After the emergence of innovative information technologies and them casting a shadow upon people’s lives, the effects of this gift on many aspects of individual and social life will become apparent and its domain will expand to an extent that some Pillars of personal an More
        After the emergence of innovative information technologies and them casting a shadow upon people’s lives, the effects of this gift on many aspects of individual and social life will become apparent and its domain will expand to an extent that some Pillars of personal and public rights of individuals and nations will be under its sphere of influence. The issue of rights of the child have such great significance that many international documents focus on them and a convention under the name of the Convention on the Rights of the Child has been assembled upon basis of which children in need will receive more protection. Also, anything that would threaten the personal future and reputation of the child needs to be reexamined, because by publishing content in cyber space a proof and document of a an event is created in an endless space in which the deletion of said data is almost impossible; therefore the preservation of dignity and protection of children’s rights in cyber space is a fundamental issue that needs special examination. Thus in this study which is conducted in an analytical-descriptive manner, the focus is on the subject of the right of the children in cyber space by relying on the laws regarding electronic trade in Iran, Convention on the Right of the Child and International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights with focus on credibility of data and electronic records. Manuscript profile
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        33 - Typology of Child-Related Policies in Iran
        Maryam Sha’ban
        This research was aimed at "the typology of child-related policies in Iran." After defining the sensitive concepts of the research, they were identified by the exploratory methodology of policy making, and then we analyzed the qualitative content analysis method. Findin More
        This research was aimed at "the typology of child-related policies in Iran." After defining the sensitive concepts of the research, they were identified by the exploratory methodology of policy making, and then we analyzed the qualitative content analysis method. Findings and results show that child-related policymaking in Iran can be summarized in three phases of typology, respectively, which include domestic policy-making, include: 1. Sovereignty; 2. Government policy making; 3. Bureaucratic policy making (bureaucratic institutions); 4. Civil society (NGOs and charities), as well as policy making Foreigners included two cases: 1. The policies of the international community; 2. The policies of the Islamic world. As a result, child-related policies are widespread and broad in Iran, covering a wide range of aspects of children's lives. Manuscript profile
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        34 - Educating Children & Juveniles Deprived of Their Liberty & the Challenges They Face in Iran Law
        Jamal Beigi Mehrdad Teymoori
        Background and aim: Every child & juvenile, in every place & time, is equally entitled to the enjoyment of his or her human rights as an inherent & inalienable right. Whether that child & juvenile is a criminal or a non-criminal, children & juveniles deprived of their l More
        Background and aim: Every child & juvenile, in every place & time, is equally entitled to the enjoyment of his or her human rights as an inherent & inalienable right. Whether that child & juvenile is a criminal or a non-criminal, children & juveniles deprived of their liberty are among the most vulnerable groups in society whose rights cannot be ignored. Today education is considered an essential element of the progress & development of human societies & the right to education of children & juveniles deprived of their liberty is also considered as one of their human rights & citizenship. Although, having the right to education of children & juveniles deprived of their liberty can play an essential role in re-socializing & reforming them. However, the implementation of this right in Iran has several challenges. Methods: The present paper, which is written using library documents & resources in a descriptive & analytical manner, examines the challenges facing the right to education of children & juveniles deprived of their liberty in Iran & offers solutions. Results: Findings & results of the study indicate that the implementation of the right to education of children & juveniles deprived of liberty in Iran faces numerous cultural, financial, judicial, legal, administrative & security challenges that must be addressed in order to address the existing challenges using the solutions provided for each What better way to take action than to enforce this right. Conclusion: The facts show the need for societies to have places that can keep inconsistent & abnormal people out of society for a while & to make arrangements so that they can reform & return to society for social welfare. The right to education of children & juveniles deprived of their liberty is one of their fundamental rights & it is the responsibility of governments to take measures in this regard to take. So that they, like other members of society, can achieve the right to education as their human right. Manuscript profile
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        35 - Right to Food from Perspective of Instruments of International Law with Emphasis to Nutrition Right of Children
        Manuchehr Tavassoli Naini Ghazaleh Behzadfar
        The right to food is one of the basic and fundamental rights for every person. In order to be able to benefit from other rights, people’s nutritional needs must first be satisfied. Without securing and attending to this right and innate need, a human will not be able to More
        The right to food is one of the basic and fundamental rights for every person. In order to be able to benefit from other rights, people’s nutritional needs must first be satisfied. Without securing and attending to this right and innate need, a human will not be able to live and benefit from the rest of human rights. The right to food is not a separate and distinct topic, it's one of the subsets rights of economic and social rights that are recognized under the title of right to adequate standards of living including right to food. The result of this research shows that in addition to the universal importance of right to food and nutrition, children’s nutrition is more important because of their age and health status. Child nutrition as well as other rights, particularly right to education is very closely related. These are the things that turn the right to food into one of the most important human rights that requires attention, infringement on which should be followed up and investigated. Manuscript profile
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        36 - The Right to Art and Identity for Children from the Perspective of Persian Poetic Texts (Poems by Hafez, Rumi, Saadi, Ferdowsi, etc.)
        Shahriar Shadigou Fariba Parvaneh Mehri Toutounchian
        In today's society, the issue of identity is a fundamental issue in childhood, because if we do not pay attention to it, the current and future generations will suffer from imbalance and confusion. The present study aims to investigate the right to art and identity for More
        In today's society, the issue of identity is a fundamental issue in childhood, because if we do not pay attention to it, the current and future generations will suffer from imbalance and confusion. The present study aims to investigate the right to art and identity for children from the perspective of Persian poetic texts (poems of Hafez, Rumi, Saadi, Ferdowsi, etc.). The research method is qualitative analysis in the form of library and using the technique of taking notes and using theoretical sources and theory about children's identification According to the obtained results, it can be said that the identification of children in contexts such as family, society and education system is emerging, so its development depends on the development of these contexts. Therefore, when researchers address the issue of child identification, they provide the means for the development of individuals first and then for the development of society. Attention to the rights of children in various dimensions is also in the focus of attention of different societies and religions in the world, so that various laws in this field have always been approved by various organizations and institutions.. Recognizing a child's art, literature, and identity as fundamental rights has an important role in the process of forming his or her identity. Parents are the first and closest reference to the rights of children in all aspects of education and identification, and certainly an informed parent can provide the most and most useful help to his or her child. The study of art in Persian poetry also reveals the influence of art on human mental development, moral development and attention to physical dimension. Manuscript profile
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        37 - Introduction of Work and Street Children's Database (1923-2011): Addressing and Solutions to Children's Social Damages and Problems
        Khosro Salehi
        The existence of social problems in every society puts children at greater risk than others and damages their health and well-being. In our country, children are facing with various problems and this problems comes from different reasons (economic, social, cultural, etc More
        The existence of social problems in every society puts children at greater risk than others and damages their health and well-being. In our country, children are facing with various problems and this problems comes from different reasons (economic, social, cultural, etc.). Street children and children who are vulnerable to harm, mainly for economic reasons, who work on the streets and, in fact, spend most of their time in unsafe and risky streets and, as a result, are more exposed to these children, especially girls. There are various risks. Understanding the status, problems and harm of these children, gathering statistics, information and resources about them, getting acquainted with the causes and factors causing these injuries and increasing them, is the first step in helping these children and trying to make the necessary changes in their lives. It means to benefit from their rights. The lack of information and their distribution in relation to children exposed to harm in general and working and street children are in particular a barrier to planning and organizing activities to relieve them of harm. Designing a database of street children and children can be promising in this field, and it is necessary to transfer it through the database to future generations. Manuscript profile
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        38 - Iran's penal policy towards providing security for children in cyberspace
        Seyed Abbas Khalilpour Chalkiasari
        The astonishing advancement of information technology in the early years of the twenty-first century has brought about countless changes in the various fields and opened another door to the new world so that all human economic, social, political, cultural and scientific More
        The astonishing advancement of information technology in the early years of the twenty-first century has brought about countless changes in the various fields and opened another door to the new world so that all human economic, social, political, cultural and scientific activities are fundamentally changed. Law is also a branch of the humanities that regulates human relations in the context of collective life. It has developed laws to prevent children from unsecured entering the virtual world and legal measures to protect them. Adopting a distinct approach to the substantive criminal law of cybercrime can minimize harm to children and adolescents by prevention. In the meantime, questions and doubts have been raised about the limits of freedom of use of the Internet for children, the limits of free flow of information against child users, protection of child privacy in cyberspace and finally the role of legal regulations to protect this vulnerable group that easily can be exploited in this boundless world. In this research, through data collection tools and using library and internet resources with rational analysis of the content to study the legislative policy of criminal law on criminal security for children in cyberspace, in comparison with the iranian legal system and international documents, in order to better confront and prevent these crimes, the issues and problems and the strengths and weaknesses of the enacted laws are presented and suggestions and solutions for solving these problems are discussed. Manuscript profile
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        39 - Children’s Rights in the Urban Rights in Light of Convention on the Rights of the Child
        Shahram Salami Mohammad Mazhari
        Development of urbanization in the world has made the states confront various challenges in realm of certain rights of citizens, especially children, as far as they need more attention than other citizens concerning their special developmental conditions. However, not o More
        Development of urbanization in the world has made the states confront various challenges in realm of certain rights of citizens, especially children, as far as they need more attention than other citizens concerning their special developmental conditions. However, not only the cities are not designed based on the needs of children, they do not offer the least rights to them. Convention on the Rights of the Child is certainly the main legal document for children. Children benefit from different rights that are reflected in the convention on the rights of children; however, this study intends to answer this question that, “What are the rights of children in the urban right area?” The necessity of identifying the children rights in the urban rights is important on that as one of the main pillars of the society, children are mostly subject to most social, economic, health and educational threats and losses. Moreover, as far as identification of the rights of children in cities is emergent at international arena, particularly in Iran, and concerning the efforts of international organizations such as UNISEF on promotion of these rights, the city managers and policymakers are expected to carry out the required action in this area. Based on this, the present study seeks to explain the main rights of children in cities such as non-discrimination, the right of children with disabilities, public hearing, benefiting social security, the right to health, education and playing and pleasure through investigating various economic, social and cultural areas that are effective on the children rights in urban area by collecting data through library method and descriptive-analytical data analysis. It is concluded that although appropriate theoretical actions have been taken by urban institution in Iran, it is obvious that there is a great gap in practice to make children achieve desired status. Manuscript profile
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        40 - Analyzing the Situation of Child Rights in the World: Extracting Implications for Iran
        Leila Naseri Amene Aali Mahmoud Abbasi
        Promoting the well-being of children around the world and defending their rights is the objective of the International Convention on the Rights of the Child, and the countries committed to it, have made extensive efforts to achieve this goal. However, making sure that t More
        Promoting the well-being of children around the world and defending their rights is the objective of the International Convention on the Rights of the Child, and the countries committed to it, have made extensive efforts to achieve this goal. However, making sure that this is done requires an evaluation of performance - how well governments adhere to their commitments and how successful they are in enforcing its provisions. In this paper, the status of child rights is based on 20 quantitative and qualitative indicators in five domains. The purpose of this article is to provide an analytical overview of the 2019 evaluation report and to identify implications for improving children's rights performance in Iran. Based on the analysis of the findings and the interpretation of the results of this report, it can be deduced that most countries have followed a similar pattern over the years, but the overall findings indicate a profound gap between the scope of action and international child rights policies in the world. Iran is ranked 100th out of 181 countries, which is not favorable. While in Iran quantitative indicators are above average, but in qualitative indicators related to "enabling environment for children's rights“ the results are very poor. This finding underscores the need to pay attention to proper legislation and enforcement in the country, to determine the best budget available for children's rights, to develop government and civil society cooperation, to focus on child participation and non-discrimination between specific groups. Manuscript profile
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        41 - Manifestations of differential penal policy towards child victims with a look at the Child and Adolescent Protection Law adopted in 2020
        bahram jafary
        Child victimization poses a dire threat to the most sensitive and important assets of society. Accordingly, in international documents and domestic laws, differential policies have been adopted to prevent victimization while limiting and eliminating its effects and prec More
        Child victimization poses a dire threat to the most sensitive and important assets of society. Accordingly, in international documents and domestic laws, differential policies have been adopted to prevent victimization while limiting and eliminating its effects and preclude secondary child victimization. Using the library and descriptive method, the present study, with emphasis on the Child and Adolescent Protection Law, attempts to discuss the aspects of the differential policy approach aimed to protect child victims in the iranian legal system. The results indicate that there were scattered, yet inadequate, regulations protecting children in various substantive and formal aspects in the past; However, while developing the scope of differential protecting regulations, the enactment of the Child and Adolescent Protection Law in 2020 has provided considerable preventive and monitoring- oriented views, especially through making legal intervention in favor of children and adolescents that are at risk or victimization. It can be said that this law clearly factors in differential policies including determining several crimes and specific punishments aimed at protecting children and adolescents and considering special institutional, disciplinary and judicial organizations with the aim of managing, preventing and dealing with child victimization and limiting its effects. Manuscript profile
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        42 - Child Rights and Autism Spectrum (Fields and Plans)
        Mahmoud Abbasi Zahra Poursina Meysam Kalhornia Golkar
        Autism spectrum disorder or Autism is a prominent contemporary psychological disorder. Patients depending on the severity of disease, suffer from functional impairment, in the areas of communication, social interaction and behavior, and generally behavioral imbalance ca More
        Autism spectrum disorder or Autism is a prominent contemporary psychological disorder. Patients depending on the severity of disease, suffer from functional impairment, in the areas of communication, social interaction and behavior, and generally behavioral imbalance caused serious problems for them in normal process of family and social life. The rising trend and tangible growth in the number of children affected in recent years, has sounded the need for targeted actions in the area of autism community health management. One of the most important areas that need to be addressed is the special support for children with autism based on the general principles of child rights and in accordance with the special situation of these children. At the moment, due to lack of health insurance coverage, inadequate diagnosis and rehabilitation facilities, ignoring the right to education and enjoy the conditions appropriate to the situation, necessity of establishing parent guidance and counseling system and support the living standards of children affected in their families and community, all has led serious challenges for those with autism and their families. Accordingly, the theoretical analysis of the principles of child rights with the importance of children with autism seems to be necessary to provide the infrastructure and requirements for securing the fundamental rights of these children especially in two areas of health and education in the domestic system. Manuscript profile
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        43 - Methods of Fostering Orphaned Children and Children with Unqualified Parents in Iranian Law
        Elaheh Mohseni
        Protecting children at risk is one of the most important issues of child rights under international and regional conventions and domestic laws. The principle accepted in family law is the parent's priority for child custody. However, if the child’s welfare requires, one More
        Protecting children at risk is one of the most important issues of child rights under international and regional conventions and domestic laws. The principle accepted in family law is the parent's priority for child custody. However, if the child’s welfare requires, one way of protecting children with unqualified parent(s) is to keep them in a safe environment outside the family by qualified persons or public or private entities and institutions. In this way, the ultimate goal is to restore parental ability, rebuild family relationships and provide the opportunity for the child to return to the family. This study uses library resources, laws, regulations and interviews with experts and professionals of Behzisti (State welfare organization) and judiciary to try to identify different ways of providing administrative and judicial support to orphaned or abandoned children In order to provide effective guardianship and care for them. According to current laws and regulations, in case of guardianless or neglected child, caring for him/her would be in a family setting and otherwise in a residential child care community. In addition to restoring family competence, the independence of the supported child also terminates the intervention of public institutions to support children and adolescents without effective guardian. Undoubtedly, the successful return of the child to the original family requires a gradual and supervised process as well as eliminating the existing family problems. Manuscript profile
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        44 - The Measures of Reacting to Pedophiles in Offenses against Children; Punishment or Treatment?
        amir samavati pirouz hassan bigdeli
        Pedophilia is one of the paraphilic mental disorders and is one of the groups of child abuse in heterosexual, homosexual and bisexual pedophiles. This disease is caused by a person's emotions and imagination. One of the best ways to identify pedophiles is to examine the More
        Pedophilia is one of the paraphilic mental disorders and is one of the groups of child abuse in heterosexual, homosexual and bisexual pedophiles. This disease is caused by a person's emotions and imagination. One of the best ways to identify pedophiles is to examine the person's instinctive reactions to audio and video stimuli related to children. The results of this research, based on descriptive-analytical method and using library tools, include that there is no definite and acceptable treatment for this disease, and that the measures proposed by experts include drug treatment and creating impotence. These measures are very effective in preventing crime because a pedophile, like other criminals, initially investigates the cost of the crime, and if he closes the government sponsors the act and can hide behind the mask of a patient, commits the crime. However, high penalties can be a serious deterrent to crime prevention. In Iran, according to recent cases and in accordance with Islamic jurisprudence, the perpetrators of these crimes, along with having elements constituting a crime, have considered class punishments in such a way that the legislator in articles of the law criminalizes acts against children and It has considered the punishment of imprisonment and flogging, and in other articles, it has considered a heavier punishment in case of sexual offenses such as intercrural sex and tribadism, and a much higher punishment in case of adultery and sodomy. Manuscript profile
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        45 - Children, Teenagers and Cyberspace: The Impact of Internet Dependence on Intergenerational Rupture
        Maryam Sha’ban Seyed Mohammad  Hosseini
        The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between internet dependence and intergenerational rupture in high school girls; for this purpose, 300 female high school students were selected by random cluster sampling from schools in the sixth district of Tehra More
        The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between internet dependence and intergenerational rupture in high school girls; for this purpose, 300 female high school students were selected by random cluster sampling from schools in the sixth district of Tehran. The research method was quantitative with a survey research design. "Internet Dependence" and "Parent-Child Relationship Scale" questionnaires were used to collect data. Statistical analysis of this study was performed using Pearson correlation coefficient. The results showed that there is a significant and inverse relationship between internet dependence and parent-child relationship in high school girls. As the Internet dependence increases in this sample, the father-child relationship and the mother-child relationship decrease. In addition, among the components of the father-child relationship, paternal relationship and paternal intimacy, and among the components of the mother-child relationship, positive maternal affection and maternal relationship, there is a significant correlation with internet dependence at the level (P <0.05). Manuscript profile
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        46 - The Rights of Delinquent Children and Adolescents in Iran: An Analysis of Four Determining Areas
        Maryam Sha’ban Seyed Mohammad Hosseini
        This study seeks to investigate how four main areas of reference in Iran and the world are exposed to child delinquent. Therefore, four main areas of reference were identified that include Iranian legal regulations, Islamic religion, the Convention on the Rights of the More
        This study seeks to investigate how four main areas of reference in Iran and the world are exposed to child delinquent. Therefore, four main areas of reference were identified that include Iranian legal regulations, Islamic religion, the Convention on the Rights of the Child in Islam and the Convention on the Rights of the Child; Then they were analyzed with a qualitative approach and documentary analysis method. The results show that exposure to delinquent children is approximately the same in all four domains. Although the three areas related to Iran and the Islamic world have been centered on Law of Religion, especially Shi'ism, their roots lie in Islamic religion, and against them the Convention on the Rights of the Child as an international matter has been drafted based on the Declaration of Human Rights and the belief in Humanism, but they work very closely on how to deal with child guilty and there are no significant differences between their procedures. Therefore, all four domains regard the child as having no precise decision-making power and consider his/her delinquency a common "mistake" in his/her development. The child should be forgiven as much as possible and his/her error should be ignored; this should also have a corrective and re-interactional aspect to be done within the child's family by the child's parents or legal guardians. Unless child guilty is limited, such as harm to others, which has resulted in violations of the rights of others, all three areas emphasize efforts to minimize penalties and impose penalties for reform and resocialization. the only point of difference is in the definition of the child and the age range that makes the subject different in applying the rules related to child delinquency. Manuscript profile
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        47 - Legal Clinics; Desirable Mechanism for Protection and Substantiation of Children's Rights
        Mahmoud Abbasi Leila Mirbod
        Children's rights are always subject to serious violations, so providing solutions for the substantiation of children's rights must be done in accordance with their highest interests. In addition to the mechanisms of international instruments and domestic law, non-gover More
        Children's rights are always subject to serious violations, so providing solutions for the substantiation of children's rights must be done in accordance with their highest interests. In addition to the mechanisms of international instruments and domestic law, non-governmental organizations can also contribute to the full substantiation of these rights due to their constructive role. in this regard child rights clinics have also been established so that they can take a serious step as a center for training and coordination of measures as well as specialized counseling. Analysis of the structure, objectives and performance of such centers can manifest their coordinating and enlightening role as an undeniable necessity. Examination of the objectives of these clinics shows that education, research, consulting services and executive measures are among their main functions. Of course, these measures also face serious challenges, such as non-allocation of funds, free services, non-participation of children in decisions related to themselves, and so on. However, children's rights clinics can create opportunities to provide scientific and practical solutions through these barriers. In line with the main issue of this study, the findings indicate that what can ensure the effective implementation of children's rights is the real cooperation of the responsible institutions with civil institutions. The present article has been written in a descriptive-analytical method with the study of domestic and international cases. A multidimensional view of the problems in the field of children, creating a new attitude of lawyers and judges to the issue of child victimization and delinquency and applying restorative justice, educating and promoting children's rights to children, parents and educators, creating a culture of entering rules to the community and creating a social attitude to Children's rights, should be at the forefront of child rights clinics. Manuscript profile
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        48 - Protection of Children from Violence in The Context of International Instruments
        Arian Petoft
        Because in preadolescence and adolescence, various physical and mental dimensions of the child are being formed and developed, childhood is the most sensitive and influential period of each person's life. Therefore, maintaining and guaranteeing the growth and physical a More
        Because in preadolescence and adolescence, various physical and mental dimensions of the child are being formed and developed, childhood is the most sensitive and influential period of each person's life. Therefore, maintaining and guaranteeing the growth and physical and mental health of the child is very important. Children should never experience domestic and social violence, and this is at the heart of international directives. Current international law obliges governments to protect all children from all forms of violence. Violence against children knows no bounds, and today it transcends race, class, religion, and culture, and there are children in all countries of the world who are always exposed to fear and experience of violence. In any case, this article is an attempt to provide a comprehensive answer to the question of what are the most important legal protections of international instruments, especially the Convention and the Declaration against Cases of Violence against Children. Thus, the present study step by step identifies and explains the most important fundamental rights of children in the context of international law. Manuscript profile
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        49 - The Right to Education of Children with Need of Mental Rehabilitation in International Human Rights Documents and Iranian Law
        hoda paran mohammad ali pourmottaqi
        The right to education, as a human right, is one of the most important rights defined in international and domestic instruments for all human beings and is mentioned in international documents such as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and Iran's domestic law, su More
        The right to education, as a human right, is one of the most important rights defined in international and domestic instruments for all human beings and is mentioned in international documents such as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and Iran's domestic law, such as the Constitution. One of the most sensitive groups entitled to education are intellectually disabled children, who may face obstacles in achieving their rights for various reasons. It is certain that disability should not prevent children from having this important human right, but unfortunately, in practice, we are witnessing challenges and problems in the international and domestic spheres that prevent the timely and appropriate education of intellectually disabled children. One of the most important problems in this regard is the absence of required laws and, consequently, the executive deficiencies in the internal system to fully support and ensure the right to education for children with mental disabilities. Therefore, it is necessary for the legislator to pay special attention to this issue, considering the special situation of children with need of mental rehabilitation. Manuscript profile
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        50 - The Course of Juvenile Court Proceedings in Iranian Criminal Law
        Esmaeil Kashkoulian Masoud Heydari
        Background and Aim: Fair trial is one of the most important issues that have always been considered by the legislator in the case of juvenile delinquents. Therefore, in this regard, there have always been several developments that the study of the course of these develo More
        Background and Aim: Fair trial is one of the most important issues that have always been considered by the legislator in the case of juvenile delinquents. Therefore, in this regard, there have always been several developments that the study of the course of these developments can help the legislator in advancing the lofty goals of children's rights. The purpose of this study is to identify and explain the legislative and judicial developments that have taken place over the years in the field of juvenile justice and has brought it closer to a fair trial. Method: The method of this research is descriptive-analytical. Results: The findings indicate that dramatic changes have taken place in the field of juvenile justice, such as the establishment of a juvenile police force, the non-openness of the trial, the specialization of juvenile courts, the need for expert juvenile court judges, the establishment of a juvenile court and possibility of appeal on all the decisions issued by the courts. Conclusion: During several decades of legislation on children, the Iranian legislature has always tried to take an effective step in the field of juvenile justice. In addition to criminal law dimensions, criminological developments have taken place in this field and the legislature has changed its approach from crime focusing to criminal, so that juvenile delinquency is more just and fair. Manuscript profile
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        51 - Domestic Legal Order in Response to Violence against Children
        Arian Petoft
        Background and Aim: Childhood is the most sensitive period of human life in which various physical and mental dimensions of individuals are formed and developed. Hence, it is crucially important to maintain children's physical-mental health. In the present article, an a More
        Background and Aim: Childhood is the most sensitive period of human life in which various physical and mental dimensions of individuals are formed and developed. Hence, it is crucially important to maintain children's physical-mental health. In the present article, an attempt is made to depict the general outline of the domestic legal normative order in response to violence against children. Method: This study has been done in a descriptive-analytical way by using the library resources and especially laws. Results: Children should never be exposed to violent domestic or social situations and experience child abuse. Since children today will be responsible for society in the future, and the progress and development of the country depend on their proper upbringing and development; therefore, the issue of violence against children, which causes great harm to it, is of special concern to Iran's laws. Conclusion: In the current legal system, the response to violence against children knows no boundaries; today, there are various examples, such as violent physical and psychological punishment, parental neglect, exploitation, unhealthy cyberspace, drop out, pornography and pressures of poverty. Manuscript profile
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        52 - The Right to Family Life of Children in the Light of Human Rights System
        Mehri Toutounchian Mina Sarshar
        The family has an irreplaceable role in ensuring the health of the individual and society; therefore, children should grow up under the care of parents and within the family. Parental care means keeping children in touch with the family. The present study has reviewed i More
        The family has an irreplaceable role in ensuring the health of the individual and society; therefore, children should grow up under the care of parents and within the family. Parental care means keeping children in touch with the family. The present study has reviewed international documents on the necessity of children's right to family life in the light of the human rights system. The family, as the solid foundation of society and the first social institution, is a natural and fundamental unit that has historically always acted as a supporter and provider of the basic needs of its members. Numerous factors in the past few centuries and especially in recent decades have caused significant changes in the definition and structure and function of the family and the role of government in this entity. The international human rights system also recognizes the variability of the concept of family and that this concept varies from place to place and from time to time depending on historical, social and cultural conditions, while accepting the existence of different forms of social classes in all over the world, there is no specific definition of family and its types. Nevertheless, the right to family life of children is recognized as a fundamental right in the international human rights system. In addition to stipulating the right of the child to live in the family, the right to marry, to found a family, and support the institution of the family have been taken into consideration, which are rooted in human dignity and freedom. Manuscript profile
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        53 - Necessity of Special Police for Children and Adolescents in Iranian Judicial System
        Askar Jalalian Mostafa zarei Abbas Barzegarzadeh
        The Special police for children and adolescents, as one of the special institutions of the juvenile justice system, was first considered in the Juvenile Delinquency Bill (1383) and then the legislator paid attention to it in the Criminal Procedure Code of 1392 in Articl More
        The Special police for children and adolescents, as one of the special institutions of the juvenile justice system, was first considered in the Juvenile Delinquency Bill (1383) and then the legislator paid attention to it in the Criminal Procedure Code of 1392 in Article 31. According to this article, the police organization was ordered to form a police section for children and adolescents. In this study, in order to achieve the hidden angles of the role of the police in juvenile justice, an attempt has been made to explain the preventive position of the juvenile police in order to answer the question: what is the role of the juvenile police in the Iranian judiciary in crime prevention? The results of this study indicate that the behavior and approach of the Iranian police towards children and adolescents does not have a differential criminal policy and in dealing with children and adolescents, adult criminal policy is used. Therefore, it is necessary for the police to try to improve the process of intervening in the proceedings of children and adolescents by formulating a differential criminal policy based on protective and not criminal intervention in compliance with national and international principles and standards. Manuscript profile
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        54 - Iranian Criminal Policy towards Child Sexual Molestation in the Light of the Child and Adolescent Protection Law of 2020
        Abbas Ali Akbari Seyede Monira Hejazi
        Children have always been exposed to many physical, psychological and sexual abuses throughout history. Today, following industrial, communication and information developments, supporting this group against all forms of exploitation is necessary, especially against sexu More
        Children have always been exposed to many physical, psychological and sexual abuses throughout history. Today, following industrial, communication and information developments, supporting this group against all forms of exploitation is necessary, especially against sexual exploitation and sexual harassment, which are often included in the black figures of delinquency in many countries, including Iran due to moral issues. In the domestic system, in order to implement protectionist policies in accordance with international standards and the existence of a gap in the former law on the protection of children and adolescents adopted in 2002, the need for differential protection of sexually abused children was felt. In 2020, in the law for the protection of children and adolescents, the legislator has paid special attention to the protection of these victims against sexual harassment. The present study analyzes data and uses library tools to examine the legislative approach of the Iranian legislature in relation to child sexual abuse in the new law due to the previous legal gaps and insufficient legislative support for sexual harassment, as well as explaining the aggravated causes of these behaviors in law. Manuscript profile
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        55 - Obligations of the Adopter Couples towards the Adopted Child and the Enforcement of it in the Iranian Legal System with a Comparative Study in English Law
        Marjan Arastooie
        Child Adoption is an effective entity in terms of improving the living standards of homeless and abused children and couples or people without children, as well as in terms of positive social reflections. In this regard, high support of the adopted child will be necessa More
        Child Adoption is an effective entity in terms of improving the living standards of homeless and abused children and couples or people without children, as well as in terms of positive social reflections. In this regard, high support of the adopted child will be necessary by regulating the obligations of guardians and enforcement of them. Obligations of guardians in Iranian law include transferring part of the property, the provision of child expenses, life insurance for the child and custody and good behavior and not to commit acts leading to disqualification, which in case of violation of each one according to the relevant rules will lead to the termination of the adoption, the change of the custody order and the compensation of the damages to the adopted child. In English law, on the other hand, there is a complete adoption system, according to which the relationship resulting from adoption is fully consistent with the legal relationship between the children and their biological parents, which reduces the distinction between the obligations of biological and non-biological guardians. But, in recent laws, a kind of incomplete adoption under the name of ‘Special Guardianship’ with specific obligations has also been identified in this country. In English law, due to the guardian's obligations, which include alimony, care and decision-making in the affairs of the adopted child, there is a guarantee of performances such as obliging and guiding the guardian to perform legal duties and the possibility of prosecution in case of child abuse. Also, according to the judicial procedure and the emphasis of the law on the principle of the material and spiritual well-being of the child, contrary to the rule, in very special and exceptional circumstances, formal adoption can be terminated. Manuscript profile
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        56 - The Spirit of Child Rights; A Look at the Goals of Child Rights in a Comparative Approach
        Salman Konani
        Answering to this question of what is the purpose of creating children rights, first of all steps requires knowledge of the basis of children rights. Understanding this rules also requires constructing the goals of children rights in the social societies. Because of thi More
        Answering to this question of what is the purpose of creating children rights, first of all steps requires knowledge of the basis of children rights. Understanding this rules also requires constructing the goals of children rights in the social societies. Because of this reason, there is a certain connection between the rules and goals of the children legal regime. Understanding of this rules and goals help to gain a more accurate awareness in regard philosophy and legal functions of children rights in society, and this act helps the public and criminal legislative to legislate more favourable child protection rules. There is no national or global consensus on the goals of children rights. There are different goals for this legal system that are not necessarily compatible. This study tries to identify the goals of children rights by descriptive- analytical method, and in this direction, a brief look at the approach of international documents and standards, as well as the Iranian legal system especially the law on the protection of children. The results show that the protection of the best interest of children is the most important basis of children right and eternalizing the right to have right for children and empowering families and paving the way for their material and spiritual development are among the most important specific goals of this legal system. Manuscript profile
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        57 - The Effect of Distance Learning through Shad Software on the Academic Achievement of Shahed Primary Special School Students in Alborz Province
        Ehsan Golmehr Mahdi Kalhornia Golkar Meysam Kalhornia Golkar leila shiravand
        Background and Aim: Education is one of the most important aspects of children's rights and so the quality of its implementation plays an important role in securing this right. This issue has a particular importance and sensitivity for children with special needs. With More
        Background and Aim: Education is one of the most important aspects of children's rights and so the quality of its implementation plays an important role in securing this right. This issue has a particular importance and sensitivity for children with special needs. With the spread of the Corona pandemic in the world, the need for distance education became inevitable. In Iran, distance learning, including at the basic level, was formed using ‘Shad’ software, which is still current in many primary schools. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of this type of education on the educational achievement of children with special needs. Method: In this study, using a descriptive survey method and a researcher-made questionnaire based on the Academic Achievement Questionnaire adapted from Pham and Taylor's 1994 research, the statistical population, teachers of Shahed Fardis Exceptional School of Karaj was selected and data analysis was performed. Chi-square test and Friedman test were used with Spss software version 24. Results: The findings showed that the effect of ‘Shad’ software in distance education is positive in terms of software efficiency and effectiveness compared to other methods of distance education and also by creating a specific program to prepare for assessments; However, due to the absenteeism of education, the overall outcome of the comments was a negative impact on students' academic achievement compared to the attendance method at the end of the year. Also, this type of education can have a negative impact on academic achievement by reducing performance during face-to-face assessment, reducing literacy skills, and distracting students due to being at home. Conclusion: Distance education, especially with the elimination of hardware and software defects, as well as cultural placement and mutual understanding of teachers, parents and students, is an opportunity in some respects to increase academic achievement, but face-to-face education, as well, due to its functions, should still be considered and emphasized by the educational system. Manuscript profile
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        58 - The Rights of Children with Disabilities in Iran: An Analysis of Determining Areas
        Maryam Sha’ban
        Background and Aim: The present study seeks to identify, interpret and analyze the rights of children with disabilities in Iran. In this regard, the decisive fields of jurisprudence and law have been identified and analyzed at the domestic and international level. Met More
        Background and Aim: The present study seeks to identify, interpret and analyze the rights of children with disabilities in Iran. In this regard, the decisive fields of jurisprudence and law have been identified and analyzed at the domestic and international level. Method: The research approach is qualitative and the research method is exploratory and documentary analysis. After identifying the documents related to the subject and issue of the research, they have been studied, analyzed and reviewed. Results: The results of the research show that at the international level and the Islamic Covenant on the Rights of the Child and in the internal laws and regulations of the Iranian society, the society and the political power structure are responsible for formulating and implementing protective policies for disabled children and these policies are also aimed at reducing harm, rehabilitating and Treatment of the disabled. In fact, they are considered a "posteriori strategy" towards the disabled. But in the religion of Islam, centered on Shiism as the dominant religion in Iran, dealing with the child is about potentially being a child, not actually being a child; This means that the children of future generations are considered and "foreseeable" in the current generation. It is as if the scope of childhood includes history and generations and is a "transhistorical" and “trans-generational" issue. Islam has emphasized on the "future and posterity" and respecting the potential rights of the next generations and has a "preventive" approach. Conclusion: The dominant strategy of the teachings of Islam in relation to children with disabilities can be inferred as "a priori and a posteriori strategy". In addition to the governing authority, community activists are responsible for the realization of plans related to this strategy for disabled children. Manuscript profile