• List of Articles


      • Open Access Article

        1 - The Effect of Distance Learning through Shad Software on the Academic Achievement of Shahed Primary Special School Students in Alborz Province
        Ehsan Golmehr Mahdi Kalhornia Golkar Meysam Kalhornia Golkar leila shiravand
        Background and Aim: Education is one of the most important aspects of children's rights and so the quality of its implementation plays an important role in securing this right. This issue has a particular importance and sensitivity for children with special needs. With More
        Background and Aim: Education is one of the most important aspects of children's rights and so the quality of its implementation plays an important role in securing this right. This issue has a particular importance and sensitivity for children with special needs. With the spread of the Corona pandemic in the world, the need for distance education became inevitable. In Iran, distance learning, including at the basic level, was formed using ‘Shad’ software, which is still current in many primary schools. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of this type of education on the educational achievement of children with special needs. Method: In this study, using a descriptive survey method and a researcher-made questionnaire based on the Academic Achievement Questionnaire adapted from Pham and Taylor's 1994 research, the statistical population, teachers of Shahed Fardis Exceptional School of Karaj was selected and data analysis was performed. Chi-square test and Friedman test were used with Spss software version 24. Results: The findings showed that the effect of ‘Shad’ software in distance education is positive in terms of software efficiency and effectiveness compared to other methods of distance education and also by creating a specific program to prepare for assessments; However, due to the absenteeism of education, the overall outcome of the comments was a negative impact on students' academic achievement compared to the attendance method at the end of the year. Also, this type of education can have a negative impact on academic achievement by reducing performance during face-to-face assessment, reducing literacy skills, and distracting students due to being at home. Conclusion: Distance education, especially with the elimination of hardware and software defects, as well as cultural placement and mutual understanding of teachers, parents and students, is an opportunity in some respects to increase academic achievement, but face-to-face education, as well, due to its functions, should still be considered and emphasized by the educational system. Manuscript profile
      • Open Access Article

        2 - The Rights of Children with Disabilities in Iran: An Analysis of Determining Areas
        Maryam Sha’ban
        Background and Aim: The present study seeks to identify, interpret and analyze the rights of children with disabilities in Iran. In this regard, the decisive fields of jurisprudence and law have been identified and analyzed at the domestic and international level. Met More
        Background and Aim: The present study seeks to identify, interpret and analyze the rights of children with disabilities in Iran. In this regard, the decisive fields of jurisprudence and law have been identified and analyzed at the domestic and international level. Method: The research approach is qualitative and the research method is exploratory and documentary analysis. After identifying the documents related to the subject and issue of the research, they have been studied, analyzed and reviewed. Results: The results of the research show that at the international level and the Islamic Covenant on the Rights of the Child and in the internal laws and regulations of the Iranian society, the society and the political power structure are responsible for formulating and implementing protective policies for disabled children and these policies are also aimed at reducing harm, rehabilitating and Treatment of the disabled. In fact, they are considered a "posteriori strategy" towards the disabled. But in the religion of Islam, centered on Shiism as the dominant religion in Iran, dealing with the child is about potentially being a child, not actually being a child; This means that the children of future generations are considered and "foreseeable" in the current generation. It is as if the scope of childhood includes history and generations and is a "transhistorical" and “trans-generational" issue. Islam has emphasized on the "future and posterity" and respecting the potential rights of the next generations and has a "preventive" approach. Conclusion: The dominant strategy of the teachings of Islam in relation to children with disabilities can be inferred as "a priori and a posteriori strategy". In addition to the governing authority, community activists are responsible for the realization of plans related to this strategy for disabled children. Manuscript profile
      • Open Access Article

        3 - The Course of Juvenile Court Proceedings in Iranian Criminal Law
        Esmaeil Kashkoulian Masoud Heydari
        Background and Aim: Fair trial is one of the most important issues that have always been considered by the legislator in the case of juvenile delinquents. Therefore, in this regard, there have always been several developments that the study of the course of these develo More
        Background and Aim: Fair trial is one of the most important issues that have always been considered by the legislator in the case of juvenile delinquents. Therefore, in this regard, there have always been several developments that the study of the course of these developments can help the legislator in advancing the lofty goals of children's rights. The purpose of this study is to identify and explain the legislative and judicial developments that have taken place over the years in the field of juvenile justice and has brought it closer to a fair trial. Method: The method of this research is descriptive-analytical. Results: The findings indicate that dramatic changes have taken place in the field of juvenile justice, such as the establishment of a juvenile police force, the non-openness of the trial, the specialization of juvenile courts, the need for expert juvenile court judges, the establishment of a juvenile court and possibility of appeal on all the decisions issued by the courts. Conclusion: During several decades of legislation on children, the Iranian legislature has always tried to take an effective step in the field of juvenile justice. In addition to criminal law dimensions, criminological developments have taken place in this field and the legislature has changed its approach from crime focusing to criminal, so that juvenile delinquency is more just and fair. Manuscript profile
      • Open Access Article

        4 - The Role of Child Hyperactivity Disorder in Adult Crime
        Fateme Esfandi
        Background and Aim: ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder) is one of the common childhood disorders that can be caused by various factors. If this disorder is not diagnosed and treated on time, it can continue until adulthood and have various consequences for the More
        Background and Aim: ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder) is one of the common childhood disorders that can be caused by various factors. If this disorder is not diagnosed and treated on time, it can continue until adulthood and have various consequences for the person. In this article, the relationship between hyperactivity disorder and crime is investigated. Method: This descriptive study was conducted by examining various library sources and interviewing psychologists of exceptional children and social workers of the children's court. Results: As a result of the studies that were done, it can be said that hyperactive children are always at risk of committing crimes due to their inability to voluntarily inhibit their behavior. Lack of timely intervention to treat and solve the problems of children suffering from this disorder causes the transfer of these problems to adulthood, which can lead to increase and continuation of high-risk behaviors and other disorders. Conclusion: Among the different methods of crime prevention, it seems that social prevention and especially developmental crime prevention are effective in preventing children with hyperactivity from committing crimes in the future. Manuscript profile
      • Open Access Article

        5 - Domestic Legal Order in Response to Violence against Children
        Arian Petoft
        Background and Aim: Childhood is the most sensitive period of human life in which various physical and mental dimensions of individuals are formed and developed. Hence, it is crucially important to maintain children's physical-mental health. In the present article, an a More
        Background and Aim: Childhood is the most sensitive period of human life in which various physical and mental dimensions of individuals are formed and developed. Hence, it is crucially important to maintain children's physical-mental health. In the present article, an attempt is made to depict the general outline of the domestic legal normative order in response to violence against children. Method: This study has been done in a descriptive-analytical way by using the library resources and especially laws. Results: Children should never be exposed to violent domestic or social situations and experience child abuse. Since children today will be responsible for society in the future, and the progress and development of the country depend on their proper upbringing and development; therefore, the issue of violence against children, which causes great harm to it, is of special concern to Iran's laws. Conclusion: In the current legal system, the response to violence against children knows no boundaries; today, there are various examples, such as violent physical and psychological punishment, parental neglect, exploitation, unhealthy cyberspace, drop out, pornography and pressures of poverty. Manuscript profile
      • Open Access Article

        6 - Reviewing the Children's Privacy in the Family Considering Conditions of the Corona Pandemic
        zeinab meisami
        Background and Aim: Privacy is considered one of the most important dimensions related to children's rights, especially during the pandemic and quarantine, it is necessary to pay more attention to respecting it in the family environment. This research was done with the More
        Background and Aim: Privacy is considered one of the most important dimensions related to children's rights, especially during the pandemic and quarantine, it is necessary to pay more attention to respecting it in the family environment. This research was done with the aim of explaining the concept, examples and issues of child privacy in the family with emphasis on pandemic conditions. Method: The present research was done with descriptive-analytical method using library resources. Results: The Covid Pandemic highlights the need for new ways of thinking about data protection. This is especially true of child-related health research. Responsible use of children's information plays a key role in promoting children's health and guaranteeing their right to health and privacy. With the widespread outbreak of the coronavirus worldwide, governments have put protocols, such as quarantine, in place to reduce the prevalence of the virus. With children quarantined at home and social activities shut down, the home is no longer the only place to relax and socialize with family. With the limitation of children's daily activities to the home environment, the issue of respecting the child's privacy is becoming more and more important in various aspects. Conclusion: For many children, school, extracurricular classes, socializing with peers, fun, etc. are summarized at home. Concentrating children's activities at home does not mean that all aspects of a child's life are observable for parents; rather, it should be noted that the child still has privacy and all his/her rights in private solitude, physical privacy, information privacy, communication privacy and personal privacy are still protected. Manuscript profile