• List of Articles


      • Open Access Article

        1 - Legal Clinics; Desirable Mechanism for Protection and Substantiation of Children's Rights
        Mahmoud Abbasi Leila Mirbod
        Children's rights are always subject to serious violations, so providing solutions for the substantiation of children's rights must be done in accordance with their highest interests. In addition to the mechanisms of international instruments and domestic law, non-gover More
        Children's rights are always subject to serious violations, so providing solutions for the substantiation of children's rights must be done in accordance with their highest interests. In addition to the mechanisms of international instruments and domestic law, non-governmental organizations can also contribute to the full substantiation of these rights due to their constructive role. in this regard child rights clinics have also been established so that they can take a serious step as a center for training and coordination of measures as well as specialized counseling. Analysis of the structure, objectives and performance of such centers can manifest their coordinating and enlightening role as an undeniable necessity. Examination of the objectives of these clinics shows that education, research, consulting services and executive measures are among their main functions. Of course, these measures also face serious challenges, such as non-allocation of funds, free services, non-participation of children in decisions related to themselves, and so on. However, children's rights clinics can create opportunities to provide scientific and practical solutions through these barriers. In line with the main issue of this study, the findings indicate that what can ensure the effective implementation of children's rights is the real cooperation of the responsible institutions with civil institutions. The present article has been written in a descriptive-analytical method with the study of domestic and international cases. A multidimensional view of the problems in the field of children, creating a new attitude of lawyers and judges to the issue of child victimization and delinquency and applying restorative justice, educating and promoting children's rights to children, parents and educators, creating a culture of entering rules to the community and creating a social attitude to Children's rights, should be at the forefront of child rights clinics. Manuscript profile
      • Open Access Article

        2 - Protection of Children from Violence in The Context of International Instruments
        Arian Petoft
        Because in preadolescence and adolescence, various physical and mental dimensions of the child are being formed and developed, childhood is the most sensitive and influential period of each person's life. Therefore, maintaining and guaranteeing the growth and physical a More
        Because in preadolescence and adolescence, various physical and mental dimensions of the child are being formed and developed, childhood is the most sensitive and influential period of each person's life. Therefore, maintaining and guaranteeing the growth and physical and mental health of the child is very important. Children should never experience domestic and social violence, and this is at the heart of international directives. Current international law obliges governments to protect all children from all forms of violence. Violence against children knows no bounds, and today it transcends race, class, religion, and culture, and there are children in all countries of the world who are always exposed to fear and experience of violence. In any case, this article is an attempt to provide a comprehensive answer to the question of what are the most important legal protections of international instruments, especially the Convention and the Declaration against Cases of Violence against Children. Thus, the present study step by step identifies and explains the most important fundamental rights of children in the context of international law. Manuscript profile
      • Open Access Article

        3 - Children, Teenagers and Cyberspace: The Impact of Internet Dependence on Intergenerational Rupture
        Maryam Sha’ban Seyed Mohammad  Hosseini
        The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between internet dependence and intergenerational rupture in high school girls; for this purpose, 300 female high school students were selected by random cluster sampling from schools in the sixth district of Tehra More
        The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between internet dependence and intergenerational rupture in high school girls; for this purpose, 300 female high school students were selected by random cluster sampling from schools in the sixth district of Tehran. The research method was quantitative with a survey research design. "Internet Dependence" and "Parent-Child Relationship Scale" questionnaires were used to collect data. Statistical analysis of this study was performed using Pearson correlation coefficient. The results showed that there is a significant and inverse relationship between internet dependence and parent-child relationship in high school girls. As the Internet dependence increases in this sample, the father-child relationship and the mother-child relationship decrease. In addition, among the components of the father-child relationship, paternal relationship and paternal intimacy, and among the components of the mother-child relationship, positive maternal affection and maternal relationship, there is a significant correlation with internet dependence at the level (P <0.05). Manuscript profile
      • Open Access Article

        4 - Iranian Criminal Policy towards Child Sexual Molestation in the Light of the Child and Adolescent Protection Law of 2020
        Abbas Ali Akbari Seyede Monira Hejazi
        Children have always been exposed to many physical, psychological and sexual abuses throughout history. Today, following industrial, communication and information developments, supporting this group against all forms of exploitation is necessary, especially against sexu More
        Children have always been exposed to many physical, psychological and sexual abuses throughout history. Today, following industrial, communication and information developments, supporting this group against all forms of exploitation is necessary, especially against sexual exploitation and sexual harassment, which are often included in the black figures of delinquency in many countries, including Iran due to moral issues. In the domestic system, in order to implement protectionist policies in accordance with international standards and the existence of a gap in the former law on the protection of children and adolescents adopted in 2002, the need for differential protection of sexually abused children was felt. In 2020, in the law for the protection of children and adolescents, the legislator has paid special attention to the protection of these victims against sexual harassment. The present study analyzes data and uses library tools to examine the legislative approach of the Iranian legislature in relation to child sexual abuse in the new law due to the previous legal gaps and insufficient legislative support for sexual harassment, as well as explaining the aggravated causes of these behaviors in law. Manuscript profile
      • Open Access Article

        5 - Obligations of the Adopter Couples towards the Adopted Child and the Enforcement of it in the Iranian Legal System with a Comparative Study in English Law
        Marjan Arastooie
        Child Adoption is an effective entity in terms of improving the living standards of homeless and abused children and couples or people without children, as well as in terms of positive social reflections. In this regard, high support of the adopted child will be necessa More
        Child Adoption is an effective entity in terms of improving the living standards of homeless and abused children and couples or people without children, as well as in terms of positive social reflections. In this regard, high support of the adopted child will be necessary by regulating the obligations of guardians and enforcement of them. Obligations of guardians in Iranian law include transferring part of the property, the provision of child expenses, life insurance for the child and custody and good behavior and not to commit acts leading to disqualification, which in case of violation of each one according to the relevant rules will lead to the termination of the adoption, the change of the custody order and the compensation of the damages to the adopted child. In English law, on the other hand, there is a complete adoption system, according to which the relationship resulting from adoption is fully consistent with the legal relationship between the children and their biological parents, which reduces the distinction between the obligations of biological and non-biological guardians. But, in recent laws, a kind of incomplete adoption under the name of ‘Special Guardianship’ with specific obligations has also been identified in this country. In English law, due to the guardian's obligations, which include alimony, care and decision-making in the affairs of the adopted child, there is a guarantee of performances such as obliging and guiding the guardian to perform legal duties and the possibility of prosecution in case of child abuse. Also, according to the judicial procedure and the emphasis of the law on the principle of the material and spiritual well-being of the child, contrary to the rule, in very special and exceptional circumstances, formal adoption can be terminated. Manuscript profile
      • Open Access Article

        6 - The Spirit of Child Rights; A Look at the Goals of Child Rights in a Comparative Approach
        Salman Konani
        Answering to this question of what is the purpose of creating children rights, first of all steps requires knowledge of the basis of children rights. Understanding this rules also requires constructing the goals of children rights in the social societies. Because of thi More
        Answering to this question of what is the purpose of creating children rights, first of all steps requires knowledge of the basis of children rights. Understanding this rules also requires constructing the goals of children rights in the social societies. Because of this reason, there is a certain connection between the rules and goals of the children legal regime. Understanding of this rules and goals help to gain a more accurate awareness in regard philosophy and legal functions of children rights in society, and this act helps the public and criminal legislative to legislate more favourable child protection rules. There is no national or global consensus on the goals of children rights. There are different goals for this legal system that are not necessarily compatible. This study tries to identify the goals of children rights by descriptive- analytical method, and in this direction, a brief look at the approach of international documents and standards, as well as the Iranian legal system especially the law on the protection of children. The results show that the protection of the best interest of children is the most important basis of children right and eternalizing the right to have right for children and empowering families and paving the way for their material and spiritual development are among the most important specific goals of this legal system. Manuscript profile