• List of Articles


      • Open Access Article

        1 - Sociological Analysis of Children's Civil Society in Iran
        Taghi Azad Armaki Maryam Sha’ban
        This study seeks to study and analyze the civil society related to children in Iran. In this regard, with the qualitative approach and the method of monography and content analysis, she has analyzed two examples of active children's domain associations in Iran. The resu More
        This study seeks to study and analyze the civil society related to children in Iran. In this regard, with the qualitative approach and the method of monography and content analysis, she has analyzed two examples of active children's domain associations in Iran. The results show that the "pathological approach" to child-related civil society in Iran casts a shadow, indicating the dominance of the "American-English approach" to child-related civil society in Iran. And, unlike the title of licenses, associations are directly and indirectly affiliated with government agencies and seek to attract positive reviews from organizations for the three purposes of "obtaining financial support", "gaining legitimacy" and "reputation". They are government. Therefore, these associations, in effect, seek "economic profitability"; therefore, the domination of "rationality" and "market logic" over the inherent rationality that permeates civil society in Iran, especially in related fields. They are targeted with children; and children are purposely targeted as ignorant audiences and without the "critical intellect". In addition, the civil society in Iran has neglected its primary mission to seek the rights and improve the status of children affected and at risk of being harmed, forgotten, or in the forefront of the community's economic interests. Therefore, the civil society associated with children in Iran is malformed and "sick", which requires urgent specialized resuscitation and review. Manuscript profile
      • Open Access Article

        2 - Responsibility of Governments and Mechanisms for Protecting Children's Rights in Cyberspace
        Mohammad Reza Hosseini
        The increasing development of cyberspace and the use of ICTs have had an effective role in the production, dissemination and transmission of information and have provided the community with access to online content. As such, cyberspace is an enabling tool to promote fun More
        The increasing development of cyberspace and the use of ICTs have had an effective role in the production, dissemination and transmission of information and have provided the community with access to online content. As such, cyberspace is an enabling tool to promote fundamental freedoms such as freedom of speech, freedom of access to information and an effective means of promoting human rights, however, at the same time it can provide the conditions for breach, violation or restriction of individual's rights. Amongst them, children's rights, as the most vulnerable segment of society, are often abused and invaded. In the contemporary world, children spend a great deal of time on educational, leisure and entertainment activities in cyberspace and online. In this space with the expanse of its domain, anonymity, the high speed, the lack of borders, the lack of mechanisms of government oversight, would have an intensive impact on the domain of users' cognition and perception and pose special risks to individuals, especially children and adolescents. Therefore, the rights of the child must be protected by governments, non-governmental organizations, civil institutions and other child affairs authorities. The main question of this study is what are the positive and negative obligations of governments to protect children in cyberspace under international customary law and internationally accredited documents? What technical, legal and structural mechanisms are available to protect children against online' damages? What has been the practice of governments and international institutions and civil society in protecting children's rights on the one hand and maintaining a free flow of information and freedom of expression on the other? To answer these questions, the researcher uses a descriptive method to provide a coherent legal framework for protecting children in cyberspace. Manuscript profile
      • Open Access Article

        3 - Study of Social Rights and Rehabilitation of Children with Disabilities in International instruments and Iranian Laws
        Manuchehr Tavassoli Naini Minou Tabatabaie Raheleh Jagir
        Attention to the issue of children with disabilities and the necessity of rehabilitation for regaining maximum possible extent of their abilities was initiated in the mid-19th century; this trend continued with ups and downs until attention to the rights of disabled per More
        Attention to the issue of children with disabilities and the necessity of rehabilitation for regaining maximum possible extent of their abilities was initiated in the mid-19th century; this trend continued with ups and downs until attention to the rights of disabled persons reached its pinnacle at the beginning of the new millennium through the enactment of the Convention on the Rights of Disabled Persons in 2006. Meanwhile, the issue of social and rehabilitation rights of the Children with disabilities is also of utmost importance. One of the important issues that make social rights and rehabilitation of persons with disabilities more particularly relevant is the different circumstances in which the disabled are placed and throughout history this difference has caused them to be deprived of their rights. In the recent century, with condition of various laws, organizations in many countries and many international bodies have taken effective steps through legislation with respect to disability rights; and countries through adopting these laws, of which the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities is the most important; have accepted the rights of the disabled. However, it is noteworthy that the basis of this legislation and how to implement it is of utmost importance; whether the laws are implemented thoroughly or just being written on down. Unfortunately, the interval between codification of the law and its administration in developing countries such as Iran a huge gap is noticeable and there is a long way to go to meet the international standards. Manuscript profile
      • Open Access Article

        4 - Comparative Review of Criminalization of Female Circumcision in African Countries
        Seyed Reza Ehsanpour
        Female genital mutilation, sometimes referred to as female circumcision, is defined by the World Health Organization as "any act, including removing all or parts of the external area of women’s genitals or other injuries to this organ without medical justification." The More
        Female genital mutilation, sometimes referred to as female circumcision, is defined by the World Health Organization as "any act, including removing all or parts of the external area of women’s genitals or other injuries to this organ without medical justification." The female circumcision has a history of over two thousand years. Some historians attribute this to ancient Egypt circa 500 BCE. In regards to circumcision, it has been noted that it may result in loss of sexual urges and preserving chastity, but even with those assumptions the terrible effects cannot be overlooked. Female circumcision is a form of sexual violence recognized by various international organizations such as the United Nations as a harmful act and a violation of women’s rights. Today, at least two hundred million women and girls are affected in 28 African countries and parts of Asia. To counter this evil phenomenon, many African countries have joined international treaties (such as Convention on the Rights of the Child) or regional ones (such as the African Charter of the Rights and Child Welfare); secondly, they have criminalized this exercise and even being an accessory to it. However, traditional customs are a fundamental obstacle to eliminating this wrong behavior in Africa. Manuscript profile
      • Open Access Article

        5 - Principles Governing the Child's Right to Health in the International Human Rights System
        Zahra Ebrahimi Zahra Moshrefjavadi
        Children as the recipients of the right to health and the future of any society need the support of the government, their parents and legal guardians while entering adulthood. The Convention on the Rights of the Child has referred to the issue of child health in several More
        Children as the recipients of the right to health and the future of any society need the support of the government, their parents and legal guardians while entering adulthood. The Convention on the Rights of the Child has referred to the issue of child health in several articles and the Committee on the Rights of the Child has called on governments to consider childhood conditions and children's evolving capacities when fulfilling their obligations toward them. Thus, the Convention on the Rights of the Child has four core principles that underpin all children's rights: the right to life and survival, non-discrimination, the right to be heard and consideration of child’s best interests such as all human rights. Since children's right to health is a general right and encounters various challenges from the time of birth and even before that to adolescence, some principles are added to the basic principles in order to supplement the content of their right to health and complete them. The right to education, protection from abuse and misbehavior and prohibition from harmful practices and threats of the digital world are specific principles governing the definition of children's right to health. Governments need to consider this right of children in all areas and recognize children as individuals possessing rights. Manuscript profile
      • Open Access Article

        6 - Protecting Children against Inappropriate and Harmful Computer Games
        Mohammas Javad Arabian Seyedeh Parisa Mirabi Ali Zand
        The use of computer games among children is rapidly expanding and it has become an integral part of children's daily lives. These games, with their innovative potential, can provide motivation for therapy, enhance practical skills and facilitate teaching and learning co More
        The use of computer games among children is rapidly expanding and it has become an integral part of children's daily lives. These games, with their innovative potential, can provide motivation for therapy, enhance practical skills and facilitate teaching and learning concepts. In addition to the positive aspects, playing these games has negative effects and on the other hand, kids drowning in computer games will lead to earn profits and benefits by the companies that make these games. This study, with descriptive-analytical method using domestic laws and regulations and internationals treaties and other library resources; was carried out to examine the protection of the children's rights from harmful computer games by applying sociological theories; domestic law and international documents and has used descriptive, analytical method aimed to ensure the right to play, enjoy and entertain. The present study was conducted aimed to examine the benefits and disadvantages of computer games to express legal requirements and protections and protect users from harmful effects of these games. Manuscript profile