• List of Articles


      • Open Access Article

        1 - Conflict of Execution of Hodoud and Retribution against Children and Adolescents with the Right to Life
        Atefeh Abbasi Fatemeh Salehi Nejad
        Despite widespread legal reforms in the Islamic Penal Code and the code of penal procedure approved in 1392, in the scope of children and adolescents, there are still gaps and bugs in the Criminal liability of the child, the kind of executable punishment against them an More
        Despite widespread legal reforms in the Islamic Penal Code and the code of penal procedure approved in 1392, in the scope of children and adolescents, there are still gaps and bugs in the Criminal liability of the child, the kind of executable punishment against them and procedure of crimes of children. This article, in a library method and after accurate study of existing jurisprudence and legal sources, concluded that, although existing laws regulate the relative acceptance of the age of criminal liability of children and adolescents in the field of crimes of inferiority and the minimum use of punishment and increase in legislating educative acts ,but the age of criminal liability Especially regarding the execution of hodoud and retribution is considered to face the challenge of aberration with social requirements and can be increased by appropriate separation between age of religious responsibility and criminal liability, based on available jurisprudential and scientific sources, which is a problem related to the execution of retributive punishments and it will raise the limit for children too. Manuscript profile
      • Open Access Article

        2 - An Analytical Study of Important Cultural Factors Deterring Child Sexual Abuse Disclosure
        Arian Petoft
        Nowadays, one of the most known types of violence against children around the world is child sexual abuse, which is typically a reflection of the causes of social problem. The customs and traditions of society sometimes make the people to conceal sexual violence against More
        Nowadays, one of the most known types of violence against children around the world is child sexual abuse, which is typically a reflection of the causes of social problem. The customs and traditions of society sometimes make the people to conceal sexual violence against children. Many cases of sexual abuse have not been reported due to concealment and fear of being exposed, and its deleterious effects on children remain concealed. As one of the most dangerous forms of violence against children is their sexual abuse, it is important to examine cultural normative factors and can help us in pathology and in providing appropriate solutions. Therefore, the present article seeks to answer the key question of what cultural norms can make us to conceal child sexual abuse cases and consequently facilitate and increase sexual violence against children and adolescents. Understanding the values generally held by people of a particular culture allows us to eliminate the social barriers to disclosing child sexual abuse. Overall, this article found that the important cultural factors are: family honor and dignity, chastity, gender discrimination, high costs of disclosure, traditional and racial difference, deviant religious beliefs and non-effective adherence to reasonable cultural norms. Manuscript profile
      • Open Access Article

        3 - Reflection on the Relationship between Education and Child Rights
        Amene Aali
        The wide range of legal implications of the International Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) have made it closely linked to various child-related social institutions and activities. One of the most important institutions or social activities that most children More
        The wide range of legal implications of the International Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) have made it closely linked to various child-related social institutions and activities. One of the most important institutions or social activities that most children are exposed to on a daily basis is education, which is important in examining its relationship to children's rights. Accordingly, this paper presents an interpretative model of the multiple relationship between the education system and CRC with an overview of theoretical texts and research reports in the literature on child rights and implications for evaluating school performance from the child rights perspective. According to the results of this study, there is a three-way relationship between education and children's rights: education is a child's right; school is a tool for observing children's rights; and education is a subject of children's rights monitoring. The third aspect of this relationship emphasizes the need to evaluate school performance from a child rights perspective. Among the 41 articles on CRC, the right to participate, non-discrimination, defense and litigation, protection of violence, the best interests, privacy, freedom of expression, and security are fundamental rights that can be used as criteria for assessing The school's performance is in observance of children's rights and in compliance with CRC. Manuscript profile
      • Open Access Article

        4 - Protection of Right to Life of the Child in Viewpoint of Islam and International Instruments with a Look at the Children of Yemen
        Mahdi Rahmani Fatemeh Piri Amirhajiloo
        The right to life is the most important right of any human being, especially the child. This right is the cornerstone of all human rights and any violation of it is a gross and grave violation of fundamental human rights. According to the teachings of Islam and many Int More
        The right to life is the most important right of any human being, especially the child. This right is the cornerstone of all human rights and any violation of it is a gross and grave violation of fundamental human rights. According to the teachings of Islam and many International Instruments, the child, as a human being, has the right to a decent living and life under any circumstances. Today, with armed clashes waged by global arrogance to achieve their economic and political interests in some countries, including Yemen, the inherent rights of children, including the right to life, the right to health, the right to education, have been clearly threatened and violated and every year thousands of Yemeni children die as a result of these clashes. Theis study is a descriptive-analytical and comparative study that examine the fundamentals of the right to life of child in Islam and international Instruments and the effects of armed conflict on child rights. In addition, the right to life of children in Yemen has been discussed and stated that it is essential for all people, national and international institutions and governments to provide mechanisms to secure this right and prevent violence against children in armed conflict. In addition, it is imperative that those who endanger the life of children in armed conflict be charged with war crimes, prosecution, trial and punishment. Manuscript profile
      • Open Access Article

        5 - Evaluation of the Right to Oral Health of a Child and its Realization on the International Stage
        Aghil Mohammadi Aghil Mohammadi Abdosaheb Niknam
        Health is one of the most important human rights. The right to oral health is one aspect of this right and an integral part of public health pertains to the disease-free status and chronic pain in the mouth, face and throat. Among the human groups, children are the most More
        Health is one of the most important human rights. The right to oral health is one aspect of this right and an integral part of public health pertains to the disease-free status and chronic pain in the mouth, face and throat. Among the human groups, children are the most vulnerable to various health threats, and therefore international instruments, in particular the Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989), emphasize the right to children's health. Oral diseases are among the factors that seriously affect this right. These diseases not only cause pain, but also affect the eating, speaking and quality of life, inner and social self-esteem of the child. Based on a descriptive-analytical approach and in the light of an overview of the international law approach to the right to health and the right to oral health and the explanation of children's rights in this field, the present paper addresses the question of the right to oral health and what is the position of child in oral health? This paper concludes that, despite the particular importance of children's oral health and the achievement of important results in this area, Oral diseases continue to be widespread among children and the right to do so is faced with many obstacles and limitations. In addition to international institutions, it is essential that states, along with global health programs for all, are targeted and organized, in particular to prevent these diseases and improve access to primary health care. Access to health information around the world, the use of new technologies, regular and annual reports by states on children's oral health can help promote the right to children's oral health. Manuscript profile
      • Open Access Article

        6 - A Survey of Child Marriage in the Country with Emphasis on East Azarbaijan Province
        Kamal Koohi
        Child marriage is one of the major challenges in the family institution and in society. Child marriage has been widespread throughout the history of societies depend on time and place. But its increase in society, especially for reasons such as poverty and the widesprea More
        Child marriage is one of the major challenges in the family institution and in society. Child marriage has been widespread throughout the history of societies depend on time and place. But its increase in society, especially for reasons such as poverty and the widespread age difference is considered a threat to the institution of the family and society. In this article, child marriages across the country are reviewed based on valid statistical yearbooks. The results of statistical analysis show that the trend of child marriage has been increasing since 2011 until 2019 and Khorasan-e-Razavi, East Azarbaijan, Sistan and Baluchestan and Khuzestan provinces are among the provinces with the highest rates of child marriage. Yazd and Semnan provinces have the least statistics. East Azarbaijan province ranks second in early marriage and child marriage as well as in divorce in the age group of 10 to 14 years. Within the provinces, child marriage is more common in the cities of Malekan, Bostanabad, Sarab and Charoimagh and the highest divorce rate was observed in early marriages in Varzaghan, Malekan, Sarab, Khodafarin, Kaleibar and Hashtrood. Therefore, for preventing, adjustment and controlling of unintended and unwanted child marriage in the community and proper management of families with child marriage, it seems that education and promotion of life skills and communication of child marriage families, education and awareness of different groups of people about child marriage outcomes, Social, Legal and Economic Prevention of child marriage based on economic poverty, creation of a database and observation of issues and problems of child marriage, employing religious leaders and community Imams in changing the stereotypes , Creating a legal obligation to deliver courses Life and marital harassment, banning abnormal age at marriage and marrying under 14, and forming medical, psychological, social, and cultural committees to guide families on the path to successful marriage are the ways in which the abnormal child-marriage rate can be decreased, Controlled and modified. Manuscript profile
      • Open Access Article

        7 - Instagram Child Labor Concept: A Study on Iranian Children on Cyber Space
        Atefeh Aghaei Zahra Rezania
        Instagram is considered a new medium context where users involving parents and children are able to actively act. Instagram Child Labor is a new phenomenon on cyberspace where children are exploited by their parents to be of use by expressing various aspects of their bi More
        Instagram is considered a new medium context where users involving parents and children are able to actively act. Instagram Child Labor is a new phenomenon on cyberspace where children are exploited by their parents to be of use by expressing various aspects of their biological life. With this in mind, media power is capable of creating a concept of child as well as behaving to the detriment of children in favor of businesses and family wealth. This study aims at identifying the meaning of "Instagram Child Labor" and what it collocates with. To this purpose, eight influencer pages working on children scope were picked out to be analyzed qualitatively utilizing MAX QDA. The results indicate that children’s body and communications equal to "display means", "mothers’ identity and brand maker", "a means to advertise" and moreover, children’s personal information is akin to "a way to satisfy children’s curiosity" that with the prior one create the concept of Instagram Child Labor so that families become more lucrative by helping advertising firms make more followers. Manuscript profile
      • Open Access Article

        8 - The Necessity of Recognition and Support of Children Right to Happiness in Domestic and International Legal System
        Reza Fanazad Ramin Poursaeid
        The increased human beings experiences and improvements have direct effect on social and legal developments. As a sample, the classic rights such as the right to life and the right to body immunity are counted as obvious and normal rights. The less-known rights have bee More
        The increased human beings experiences and improvements have direct effect on social and legal developments. As a sample, the classic rights such as the right to life and the right to body immunity are counted as obvious and normal rights. The less-known rights have been appeared in both internal and international law. The right to happiness with emphasis on child happiness is one of these new phenomenons. This right obtains its situation as a new generation of developing factors by some countries. The authors search and explain by library-based studying method on the concept of happiness in philosophy, theosophy, morality, literature and religious jurisprudence. Then, (facts) and (norms) about joining of children happiness and legal system are discovered. The results show us non-governmental organizations and governmental ones such as teaching and cultivation ministry or Institute for the intellectual development of children and young adults in spite of their advantageous services are far from their real missions. It may because of no priority of happiness for politicians, absence of consistency between policy and relative administrators, some cultural and economic challenges, etc. This article has submitted some suggestion to solve the obstacles in accordance with available circumstances. Manuscript profile
      • Open Access Article

        9 - Children's Rights to Education in International Human Rights Documents
        Marzieh Hojaji Najaf Abadi Massimo Papa
        Children's rights, as part of the human rights debate, focus on protecting and supporting children and achieving their basic rights. Human rights are the inherent rights of all human beings. Children also have the same rights without discrimination. The main purpose of More
        Children's rights, as part of the human rights debate, focus on protecting and supporting children and achieving their basic rights. Human rights are the inherent rights of all human beings. Children also have the same rights without discrimination. The main purpose of this research is to investigate the right to education of children and to study it in international documents. An analytical approach has been used to achieve this goal. The main focus of this analysis is the Convention on the Rights of the Child as the most important document in the field of child rights, related articles on the Child’s education right, other international human rights instruments, the position of education in the international human rights system, the Declaration of Human Rights and Islamic Declaration of Human Rights. Therefore, recognizing the right to education for children in the human rights system will require the support and commitment of governments to provide children with access to appropriate educational facilities. The Declaration of the Rights of the Child incorporates the broad concept of the child as the right holder. The four basic principles of the Convention on the Rights of the Child can be: 1. The principle of non-discrimination and the guarantee of the rights of the Convention for all children without any discrimination; 2. The priority of the interests of the child in any law and regulations affecting the child; 3. The right to life, survival and development of children and adolescents; 4. The right to have children's views and opinions at all stages of their decision-making. In this international instrument, Articles 28 and 29 recognize the right to education in children and this right has been enshrined in equal opportunities. Another international human rights instrument, especially in the field of children and the right to education of children, is the Human Rights Declaration of 1948. Article 26 recognizes the right to education of children and everyone has the right to equal access to education and access. It also sees education as guiding the human personality with good understanding, forgiveness and respect for different beliefs. This analysis, on the one hand, represents the belief in the inherent dignity of children and the "human personality" without any discrimination on the basis of issues of gender, color, opinion, ethnicity and religion, and on the other hand, emphasizes the principle is to protect children and to recognize their fundamental rights. The right to education as a human rights principle in the field of children, including the right to access to education, the right to quality and standard education, respect for the human dignity and dignity of the child, non-discrimination education at all stages of childhood, access to educational opportunities and equality of opportunity in education. Manuscript profile