The Nature, Effects and Requirements of Child Adoption in Iranian Law with a Comparative View of Islamic Principles and British law
: child rights
(Master of Private Law, Department of Law and Political Science, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran)
Adoption is an essential entity in current societies which in addition to providing the benefits for children without a guardian and couples without children, will have positive social implications and so it’s necessary to adapt its rules to social requirements. In this study, the nature, conditions and effects of adoption in Iranian law were reviewed with a comparative looking at Islamic law as well as English law. Data analysis indicates that in Iranian law, following Islamic law, there is incomplete form of adoption and despite recent legislative progress and development, the effects of adoption are not sufficiently and effectively provided in the law, while the principles and Islamic teachings show capacities to strengthen the entity of adoption by considering social conditions and requirements. In English law, on the other hand, a complete adoption system is applied, according to which the relationship resulting from adoption is fully consistent with the legal relationship between the children and their biological parents. However, in recent rules, a kind of incomplete adoption under the name of special guardianship has been identified in the law of this country, which has provided a dual system for taking advantage of different approaches to adoption.
1. Emami A. The Legal Status of Adoption in Iran. Journal of Philosophical-Theological Research. 1999; 1(1):22-33.
2. Koleini MY. Al-Kafi. Tehran: Islamic Library; 1987. Vol. 7. p. 51.
3. Payande A. Nahj al-Fasaha. Tehran: Donyai Danesh; 2003. p. 470.
4. Jamal Khansari MH. Sharhe Ghurar al-Hikam wa Durar al-Kalim. 2 ed. Tehran: Institute of Printing and Publishing University of Tehran; 1980. p. 633-634.
5. Tarazi S. A Study of Adoption in Iranian, British and Swedish Law. Payam-e-Danesh Magazine. 2009; 1(38):65-76.
6. Earl D. Myers, The English Adoption Law, Social Service Review. The University of Chicago Press. 1930;4(1):53-63.
7. Fadavi Lanjvani S. Conflict of Laws in Adoption. Kanoon Magazine. 2005; 2(56):151-170.
8. Keating J. Adoption in England and Wales: The Twentieth Century. 2017. Available at: http://www.historyandpolicy.org/docs/dfe-jenny-keating.pdf.
9. Sajestani SA. Sunan Abi Dawood. Saeed Muhammad Al-Laham. Beirut: Dar al-Fikr; 1940.
10. Tusi M. Tahzib al-Ahkam. Tehran: Dar al-Kitab al-Islamiyya; 1987. Vol. 8. p. 348.
11. Saduq M. Man Lā Yahḍuruhū al-Faqīh. Qom: Islamic Publications; 1993. p. 362.
12. Ibn Manzoor M. Lesan Al Arab. Beirut: Dar al-Fikr; 1994.
13. Sobhani J. Manshour Javid. Qom: Imam Sadegh (AS) Institute; 2004. Vol. 13. p. 154.
14. Beheshti A. Family in the Quran. 5 ed. Qom: Bustan Ketab Publications; 2006. p. 350.
15. Nasiri S. Jurisprudential Legal Study of Marriage of a Head of Family with an Adopted Child in Five Islamic Religions. MA Dissertation. Islamic Azad University, Central Tehran Branch; 2015.
16. Bahjat MT. Istifta'at. Qom: Office of Hazrat Ayatollah Bahjat; 2007.
17. Emami A. Adoption in Current Iranian Law. Journal of Philosophical-Theological Research. 2000; 2(3):38-59.
18. Mohammadi Ghavam M. Adoption in Iranian Law. MA Dissertation. Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman; 2015.
19. Mousavi Bojnourdi SM, Alaei Novin F. A Study of the Adoption Situation after the Islamic Revolution. Matin Research Journal. 2009; 12(42):21-46.
20. Safaei SH. Family Law. 2 ed. Tehran: University of Tehran Press; 1997. Vol. 2. p. 33.
21. Barker D, Padfild C. Law made simple. Tehran: Mizan Publication; 2005. p. 162-163.
22. Sloan BD. Post-Adoption Contact Reform: Compounding the state-ordered termination of parenthood. Cambridge LJ. 2014;73:378.
23. Overview of English Adoption Law. Center for Adoption Policy. 2019. available at: http://www.adoptionpolicy.org › pdf › eu-england.
24. Child Adoption in UK. Childcare and parenting. 2017. Available at: https://www.gov.uk/child-adoption.
25. Howell D. The Adoption and Children Act 2002: An Overview. 2014. Available at: http://www.courtroomadvice.co.uk/.